Prepare for the “Resistant Starch” Assimilation; Resistance is Futile

Some months ago I got interested in the fact that people were toying with the idea of eating mostly just potatoes for a period of time for weight loss. So I tried it, blogged about it, entertained it for a few weeks, dropped about 13 pounds to verify it works (probably because it's hard to eat enough potatoes to maintain weight). But I just quickly got tired of potatoes. Not so at all with my milk & kefir deal that's into its seventh week, stronger than ever, and now I'm really doing a lot of tweaking of the essential magic of the thing. But details on that are for a different day and newsletter issue.

One thing that cropped up and that's been a new tweak in my milk & kefir escapades: resistant starch. It was a commenter, "Tatertot," who'd done all the yeoman's work on the deal, so I asked him to put it all together for us.

So here's Tatertot.

~~~

Last fall, I was toying around with the Potato Hack and mentioned it on Paul Jaminet's Perfect Health Diet blog. Paul mentioned that part of the effectiveness of the Potato Hack undoubtedly was due to the butyric acid and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) from the resistant starch in the potatoes.

This got me thinking about resistant starch (RS). I had heard of RS before, but didn't know much about it. I did a few Google searches, and the more I read, the more I liked. There were well-studied correlations between RS intake and colon health, improved cholesterol, better glucose control, weight loss, hunger abatement, and increased vitamin and mineral absorption.

I learned that scientists first 'discovered' RS in the 80's. Since then, numerous studies have been done on the effect of RS in animals and humans. One of the first articles I read on RS was written in 2008. Please read for a quick primer on RS. Done? OK, moving on.

At first, people told me I was wasting my time with RS. Afterall, they said, "RS is nothing more than Type III fiber, right after soluble and insoluble. We got over our obsession about fiber when we got over eating Kashi...It's not that it's bad for you, just not necessary; and, If it's butyrate you want, just eat butter—or put it in your coffee!—it's loaded with the stuff." I almost gave up my quest when I came across Dr. Eades' article bashing RS: He concludes in the article, "This brief discourse should put you off of resistant starch even without knowing what anti-nutrients are (resistant starch is an anti-nutrient), why they’re there and what they do. We’ll save that for a later post." Then there was this great back-and-forth on Mark's Daily Apple.

Luckily, I found tons to support the intake of RS from a number of other sources, so I kept looking.

Most scientists used 20-50 grams RS per day in their human studies. Most recommendations are for the ingestion of 20-40g/day for maximum benefit, and there seems to be an upper limit of about 60g where it stops being effective, and a lower limit of about 20g where it has little effect.

My next step was to target RS in the 20-60g/day range from common foods...this proved difficult.

I learned there was a bit of RS in cooked and cooled rice, like sushi rice, but only a small amount, like 5g per cup.

An average-sized raw potato contains about 50g RS. When cooked it contains between zero and 5g, depending on cooking methods. The RS found in raw potatoes swells and bursts as temperatures approach 160 degrees F, turning the RS into rapidly digestible starch. The highest RS in cooked potatoes is in potato chips and french-fries—foods most paleo eaters wisely avoid because of the oils used.

When cooked potatoes are cooled, the starch undergoes a process called 'retrogradation' where the rapidly digestible starch is converted back into RS. The amount of RS in a cooked and cooled potato is approximately 8g.

Another source I found for easily accessible RS was green bananas. A medium-sized, very green banana contains 15g RS. As it ripens, the RS goes to zero. A big problem is that very green bananas taste like crap! They can be eaten, but not really enjoyed.

Legumes such as kidney beans contain a fair amount of RS, nearly 10g per cup. Once again, most paleo eaters wisely avoid legume consumption due to possible anti-nutrients and harmful compounds. Still, I don't hide from the occasional serving of beans—I just don't make them a staple food.

Unripe plantains are about 75% RS by weight. Unripe plantains are worse than green bananas and completely inedible. I did, however, find that when dehydrated and salted, they are very palatable. They taste just like a Saltine cracker and provide about 100g of RS per plantain.

Another source of RS I looked into was Hi-Maize Corn Starch. This product is made from specially bred corn with a high RS content. It's widely added to baked products to increase the RS content. My paleo leanings kept me from trying this out.

The latest and probably most promising product I've found is unmodified (raw) potato starch (RPS). RPS is widely noted as containing 78% RS by weight. Bob's Red Mill sells potato starch for under 15 bucks for 5 pounds. There may be other suppliers, if so, make sure you are buying 'unmodified' potato starch. Potato Starch is often modified for industrial purposes—you don't want that!

Edibility-wise, potato starch is not bad. It mixes well with any liquid and has no real taste and is not gritty, mealy, or pastey. I've eaten up to 4TBS (48g), which is 30-35g of RS, on an empty stomach with no digestive problems. I think it is a very good addition to your arsenal of RS foods.

So, after months of research, it's come down to this: I eat potatoes almost every day, cooked in a variety of ways, a few raw slices, and lots of cold potatoes. I eat sushi when I can, beans on rare occasion, and I keep a baggy full of dried plantains on the counter to snack on. When I buy bananas, I get the greenest ones I can find. Sushi is eaten guilt free, especialy with raw fish and seaweed. I will eat legumes from time to time if thoughtfully prepared to remove toxins. I also keep a container of potato starch on the counter and am finding all kinds of ways to use it--in smoothies, milk, kefir, mixed with water and eaten with berries and mashed bananas, or just mixed with water and drank.

In the several months I've been trying to get 20-60g/day RS, I have witnessed a lowering of fasting blood glucose from the 110-120 range to the 90's, hdl cholesterol increased from 35 (in Nov 12) to 59 last week, ldl lowered from 150 to 130, and triglycerides went from 60 to 50. Whether these improvements are soley from the RS is hard to say, but at least they didn't go in the other direction! It's hard to pin down the contributions of a healthy gut, but I think it's a worthwhile endeavor to target an increase in RS, especially for people who are pre-diabetic or have high cholesterol.

An experiment I did recently with potato starch told me all I need to know. I have been tracking my fasting blood glucose and post-prandial resonse to carbs with a OneTouch glucose monitor. I know that a potato with 40g carbs will cause a PP glucose spike of over 175 at 1 hour and return to normal at 3 hours. I drank 44g of potato starch mixed with water on an empty stomach and checked my glucose level every 15 minutes...I never saw a rise in BG more than 5 points above my fasting level. This proved to me that potato starch causes absolutely no glycemic load. Furthermore, 4 hours later, I ate a large, plain potato and found that my 1 hour PP glucose level was under 140 and returned to normal in less than 2 hours! Thus proving to me that RS has a powerful 'Second Meal Effect" as described here. I think it will turn out that as far as Low Glycemic Index foods are concerned—raw potato starch is the lowest!

I'm hoping that Richard can get the word out and explore RS on his blog and get some interest going. Here are a few studies to look at concerning RS, but a quick Google, Google Scholar, or PubMed search for Resistant Starch + terms like obesity, diabetes, potato starch, or gut health will turn up hundreds of studies.

~~~

It's been two weeks or so since, at Tatertot's suggestion, I've usually been taking 4 tablespoons of Bob's Red Mill Potato Starch per day, stirred into milk or kefir (actually quite pleasant taste & texture, for me). The most prominent effects I've noticed (I don't prick my fingers, sorry):

  1. Increased satiation. I go quite longer before wanting more milk, depending on whether the last time was with the potato starch or not.
  2. TMI aspects are very, very good.
  3. Prolonged sleep. Even though I'm a pretty good sleeper, I'm used to a few short stirs and wake-ups per night; but if I take 2T of the PS in a glass of milk before bed I have bouts of going 5-6 hours without a single wakeup.
  4. Weirdest of all: I have these long-ass, complex narrative dreams about current stuff in my life, instead of the more common, crazy-assed, out-of-nowhere dreams that seem anxious and go on and on in a continuous loop, if you know what I mean. I suspect this is a consequence of #3, and not a direct link to whatever the PS/RS is doing to colonic gut flora, though I don't rule it out.

OK, dat's all folks. Giver 'er a shot and oh, BTW, RS yields only 2-3 calories per gram, not 4.

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Comments

  1. I’d tend to respect Michael Eades over a potato farmer hiding behind the handle “tatertot.”

    Guess I’m wacky that way.

  2. Yeah Eades has never been wrong on anything. Ever. Anywhere.

  3. Kayumochi says:

    That was very informative. Thank you for your hard work Tatertot.

  4. tatertot says:

    I don’t have any motivation to spread the word about RS other than my interest in seeing other people’s N=1′s. RS isn’t really on anybody’s radar at the moment, there are no RS Diets or RS supplements to buy. Somebody will cash in on this soon, I’d bet. Dr. Oz talked about ‘resistant carbs’ last week and spread a lot of misinformation (boiled green bananas are a great source! Wrong).

    RS was discovered in the 80′s, lots of studies and articles appeared in the 2005-2008 timeframe, but were all summarily dismissed by Sisson, Eades, and many others. I think the word ‘Starch’ threw them due to the low-carb party that was going on at the time. Paul Jaminet has known about RS and talks about it a lot. Unfortunately, I don’t think you can eat enough safe starch to get the 30-50g/day used in all the studies.

    All I can say is ‘read the studies and papers, do a google search, with a focus on 30-50g/day of raw potato starch’–lots and lots of research done on that. I’ve also recently learned that green banana flour and plantain flour are readily available, fairly cheap, and 50-65% RS.

    Maybe eating potato starch doesn’t seem ‘paleo’, but neither does a diet which completely neglects a nutrient we seemed to have evolved on, comes from easily accessible raw tubers, and in all studies improves gut function.

    • Boiled green bananas have been used with rice in studies to produce short chain fatty acids and feed microbes in colon. Why is Dr. Oz wrong? Do they have to be cooled obviously?

  5. Tatertot, really great overview, thank you. I’d been following your comments on this recently and it’s a lot of material to assimilate that way. I can see the effect of specifically RS on gut biome and therefore as a form of insurance for gut function (or even a corrective action for guts that already suffer eg.IBS).
    As to it’s other effects, a couple of questions :
    1. it’s called resistant because it passes through the upper GI and into the large intestine and colon where it is thought to be digested. O.k. but if it doesn’t raise BG (the usual marker for starch digestion), do you know if there’s some other marker that shows that it really is digested and absorbed into the body?
    The reason I’m asking is :
    2. could it be that the results on satiety, or on BG, triglycerides and cholesterol etc. are due to it acting like indigestible fiber? In other words, would eating cellulose have the same physiological effects? – of course not counting the direct effect of RS on gut biome (which I know they have, um, ‘tmi’ ways of measuring ;))
    Thanks for considering the questions.

  6. That’s right Rob.

    Dismiss the like 300 studies, dismiss everyone’s experience and by all means, don’t try it. You might upset Mike Eades and apparently that’s very, very important to you.

    Personally, I think Mike gets most stuff right and in this case I think he simply dismissed it out of hand without thoroughly looking into it; and especially, noting that in ALL studies it creates no glucose spike and in most if not all test subjects, both humans and animals, tends to lower fasting BG over time (something I would find hard for an LC doc to dismiss if he dug into it).

  7. nullAndVoid says:

    Enough. I’ve had enough. Non-fucking stop chatter about fucking food for fucks sake. Fuck it. Cunts. You’re all cunts.

  8. We tend to do that around here quite often. What would you prefer?

  9. Yeah, Richard, it’s just about not hurting Mike Eades feelings. Not the fact that Eades went to medical school. Nor that he was a bariatric physician before the term had been coined. Not even the fact that Eades has read a study or two himself. Not the fact that he’s written tons of books on the subject and dedicated his life to it.

    No, an anonymous farmer hiding behind “tatertot” outranks Eades in Richard’s latest nutty diet outing. So much so that anyone siding with Eades MUST be doing so out of NOT WANTING TO HURT EADES’ FEELINGS. THERE COULDN’T BE ANY OTHER POSSIBLE REASON.

    And the sheep bleat their support! All hail Mr. Potatohead!

  10. Rob, this is simply an argument from authority. I would be surprised if Eades has read any of the studies.

    Btw, you don’t want to trust him, don’t. Go ask Paul Jaminet, a recognized expert on starches. Paul tweeted this post to his twitter, Facebook and Google followers. Also got an email from him about it.

    Just go read the studies yourself, as I have done– some anyway. Everyone I’ve read is right down the line with what tatertot has said. Also right down the line with my own experience.

    Incidentlly, tater is anonymous to neither Paul Jaminet, or I.

  11. @Rob
    1st paragraph is just an appeal to authority, how is it supposed to prove what you say, especially considering the studies quoted? Also I would note that Eades compared RS to statins, where statins are proven to be dangerous and ineffective, while RS at worst will act like a bit of fiber (remember that the optimum is to be below 60g with it), so I wouldn’t exactly trust an article starting like that.

    Next to note is that from what I know Eades was touting the “metabolic advantage” of high fat diet as the thing making the difference between staying fat or losing fat for quite some time, but then said after a while that the advantage is so small, that it can NOT be measured with the tools usually used to measure weight loss (aka scale). You know, I would rather measure weight loss with a scale showing kg, not mg.

    I think that’s enough to say that Eades isn’t always correct.

    2nd paragraph we have an ad hominem, nice!
    So how about you search for some studies and if you actually find any proving how dangerous RS is, then you will talk about it? Or at least tell me how a theoretical anonymous farmer will get rich if some people from here will, let’s say just buy even 1kg of potatoes per day, considering their price (in Poland it’s like 1,2 dollars per 2kg).

  12. LeonRover says:

    “NOT WANTING TO HURT EADES’ FEELINGS” ?

    Hmmm, Mike would only have hurt feelings in these circumstances –

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQBDN5s8IB0 :) :)

    (I know this does not apply to Marie.)

  13. Natalie says:

    Sorry if this has been answered before, but what about arrowroot or tapioca starch? (I use them as a sauce thickener instead of corn starch).

  14. SO, no gas? No symptoms of maniacal gut flora overgrowing everywhere?

  15. Austin Pitts says:

    Great write up tatertot! I’m glad to see the full story and I understand why I should start taking some in the morning instead of all at night.
    I started with 2 T of Bobs unmodified mixed with a little water and kefir at night before bed and didn’t see much so I upped it to 4 T the same way before bed and didn’t see much either but this was only over the course of a week. I’ll keep at it and start with 2-3T in the morning along with at night now.
    I agree with you on the simply way of mixing with water and kefir, no biggie drinking and causes no gas or other issues. It does seem to fill the stomach up nicely so I might play with drinking it earlier in the night to try and help ignore cravings for a dessert.
    Thanks again!

  16. I’m considering trying the raw potato starch, but I’ve heard that raw potatoes contain a neurotoxin. I haven’t actually done any research, but thought maybe someone here could provide a good place for me to start looking.

  17. tatertot says:

    Marie – At first, RS was treated and thought to be like any dietary fiber, but later studies show it is nothing like typical digestible or indigestible fiber. One of the big problems with RS is how to classify it and how to label it on nutrition labels. Another problem is actually measuring it in foods. RS changes as food goes from raw to cooked and back to cooled, so it’s impossible to say a certain food has X amount of RS. Raw potato starch, however, has been well studied and is universally accepted as 78% by weight. Much of this was figured out with ileostomy patients and pigs, who were dissected to see where the starch granules dissappeared.

    This paper has a picture of what RS looks like after it passes through the small intestine and again in the large intestine covered with gut microflora.

    Many studies also measure RS in fecal output and find it decreases over a period of about 28 days as the gut bacteria grows to accomodate the most welcome food source. It’s also how they determined the upper limit of about 50g/day–more than that would show up in feces as undigested starch granules.

  18. tatertot says:

    @Rob – The Eades blog on RS was written in 2008 in response to an ABC News video someone had sent him. The video is no longer available, but it was probably filled with misinformation just like the recent Dr. Oz segment on “resistant carbs” http://www.doctoroz.com/videos/resistant-carbs-fight-cancer

    Mark Sisson also did a mocking review of an article (http://shine.yahoo.com/healthy-living/8-reasons-carbs-help-you-lose-weight-2442968.html ) on RS at http://www.doctoroz.com/videos/resistant-carbs-fight-cancer Mark Sisson says this in 2011 of RS:

    “It’s silly and not worth a lot of typing, so I’ll make it short. The thing that jumps out at me is the author’s obsession with “Resistant Starch.” First of all, I’m not sure why it deserves repeated capitalization (maybe it’s some sort of deity?), and second, resistant starch is just another type of prebiotic whose fermentation by microbiota releases beneficial short chain fatty acids. You can get the same kind of reaction by eating other sources of soluble fiber, many of them decidedly low-carb. Think leafy greens, broccoli, berries, apples, jicama, onions, garlic, leeks, Jerusalem artichokes. And yes, if your activity levels and metabolic health permit, Primal starches are good sources of resistant starch and soluble fiber alike, but it’s not the carbs doing it. It’s the “carbs” that you literally cannot digest without your little microscopic friends’ assistance.”

    I think if Eades or Sisson would dig into it deeper, they would find there is way more to it than what they have written.

  19. tatertot says:
  20. tatertot says:

    @uey111 – If I was a smart potato farmer, I’d be marketing my potatoes as health food and working a completely different angle on the RS. People who buy potatoes want to know one thing: Do these make good French Fries? Talking about RS and gut microflora to potato buyers only gets you a glazed over look and a lost sale.

    Potatoes are cheap, nutritious, and tasty. Unfortunately it is almost impossible to get enough RS to make a difference, that’s why I turned to potato starch. Zero money in it for me. My interest is only in spreading the word about RS and getting some attention on the more paleo form of RS. The Hi-Maize people, who were formerly getting rich off of High Fructose Corn Syrup, are positioning themselves to be the world’s supplier of RS–in the form of GMO corn.

  21. tatertot says:

    @Natalie – I’m just not sure about the other starches available like Arrowroot and Tapioca. At first glance I would say they are not good sources because they are advertised as ‘easily digestible’. I can’t find anything that gives an RS content for these. However, banana and plantain flour is often cited as being 50-65% RS by weight and is used in many of the studies.

    Yesterday, I mixed 2TBS of potato starch with about 1/2 cup of plain yogurt, and it reminded me exactly of the poi you get in Hawaii. I did some reading on poi and found this http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1482315/ I know it’s a lot to take in, but back in 1917, resistant starch was not known. Maybe the reason the polynesian cultures thrived was the diet high in RS.

    “Poi is easily digested, and this may benefit certain health conditions involving the gastrointestinal tract … In 1928, Barret15 observed that the Kanakan language of the Polynesians did not even have a word for indigestion. MacCaughey recognized how easily poi was digested in 1917, and explained that this was due to the small size of the taro starch granule. This was confirmed by the studies of Langworthy and Deuel, who found that the raw starches of rice and taro root were notably more digestible; they also determined that this was the result of the smaller size of the starch granules. Early human studies with poi ingestion showed no undigested starch in feces, even if large quantities of poi were consumed. In 1952, Derstine and Rada reported that the fermentation process seems to be affiliated with the easy digestibility of poi and the high absorbability of its minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus. The nutrient composition of poi is very similar to the values shown for taro (Table 2). Poi is also hypoallergenic because of its very low protein content, and as such has been used as a food substitute for people with food allergies…Dr. Jerome Glaser, a pediatrician and allergist visiting the Hawaiian Islands in 1961, reported that many infants in Hawaii were practically raised on poi. In addition to the extensive use of poi for normal infants, Glaser noted the high use of poi for allergic infants and those with gastrointestinal disorders, and theorized that infants allergic to cereal could eat poi as a substitute.”

  22. tatertot says:

    @August – Absolutely NO distress whatsoever. The first time I tried the potato starch, I had 4TBS on an empty stomach. No problem. I have noticed a change in stool from 5/6 to 3/4 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Stool_Scale) which is considered ideal. Also, and I know this is way into the TMI territory, but there is now a completely different smell. I’m not even going to try to describe it, but it is way better now.

    This paper: http://journalofanimalscience.org/content/87/3/984.full goes in depth on the changes of gut microflora in pigs fed different amounts of raw potato starch and shows that a certain percentage of potato starch in the diet can be used to replace the antibiotics normally given to young pigs due to the increase of beneficial bacteria from the starch feedings.

  23. tatertot says:

    @Austin Pitts – I can’t say for sure what is best in terms of timing. Some days I take 4TBS after dinner, some days with dinner, some days at lunch and sometimes in the morning. It doesn’t really seem to make a difference. i think the key is 20-50g/day. It spreads out through the large intestine and gets assimilated as your gut flora allows.

    At first, you may only be digesting a fraction of it, but supposedly within about 4 weeks, the good bacteria have spread throughout the entire colon and it is fully digested.

    Some studies suggest that the incidence of colon cancer moves more distally as RS increases in the diet of the population studied.

    In countries with little to no RS (SAD), colon cancer is seen in all parts of the large intestine. In countries with moderate amounts (China), colon cancer is seen mostly in the descending colon, or the last third.

    In countries with high RS intakes (Africa), colon cancer is rare or unheard of.

    This makes sense to me. If you are getting only a fraction of RS, it is digested in proximal, or beginning part of the large intestine, leaving the rest at danger of cancer. The more RS, the more of the colon is protected.

  24. tatertot says:

    @Steven Richards – Eating raw potatoes can be hazardous as there are somewhat poisonous chemicals in the eyes, leaves, and green spots. If a potato is peeled and examined for green spots, it can be safely eaten raw.

    When potatoes are made into starch, all the skin is removed and the pulp is filtered in extremely fine mesh sieves to remove any fiber, leaving only the starch. There is no known hazard associated with eating potato starch, raw or cooked, in fact it is many times safer than eating regular potatoes.

    Here is a description I got from Bob’s Red Mill on their potato starch production method:

    ” I have provided some information below that we received from our Supplier:

    The process is as follows:

    Washing
    Grinding
    Wet Screening
    Purification
    Drying
    Pre-sieving
    Magnet
    Sieving
    Packing paperbags
    storage”

  25. Phocion Timon says:

    Cool. This blog is usually entertaining but this post really hit the mark.

    I have tried the potato route but weight gain got ahead of me. I’ve known for a while potatoes have nutritional benefits but they send my weight scale into hissy fits. I’ll give the tater starch a try though.

    Thanks.

  26. @tatertot – Great guest article. I’ve been scouring the internet (when I have some time) ever since one of Richard’s Potato Hack posts from months ago. All the research I can find to date is either positive or non-conclusive. If half of what I have read is true, then this is a great tweak to the diet. I have been using it for the last couple of months. One great takeaway for me about your article is I’m now convinced I have not been eating enough and will up my consumption by two or three times (I was eating about 15 g per day which is three times the level obtained by the typical American diet.) However, you refer to Hi-Maize 260 as being GMO. Everything I have read states quite clearly it was developed though natural plant breeding over thirty years. In fact, one company fact sheet mentioned specifically that it was not GMO. Could you reference a GMO citation or citations? Thanks

  27. Chris Tamme says:

    Shit I didn’t know Mike Eades went to medical school. Maybe I should start listening to all the people that went to medical school. I should never have told that doctor that went to medical school to shove those statins up his ass. Thanks Rob I see the error of my ways and will start eating less fat and have 5 heaping helpings of grains a day.

    I have found that excess education does not always correlate with intelligence. It is weird.

    I think I am going to try the RS though. My TC dropped from 298 to 232 and BP from 125/80 to 100/70 since I started taking 3tbsp of VCO per day and 2tbsp of ACV. It is time to start another experiment.

  28. Tatertot, thanks again, that’s just what I was looking for.
    Also, fwiw, you have a great way of explaining some pretty complex stuff, making it easily digestible ;)

  29. Phocion Timon, ‘the good’+in the wilderness, or ‘the good’+satirist? Curiosity piqued…
    Also, do you mean by ‘potato route’ that you tried a potato-only hack for weight loss and it didn’t work, or just tried adding potatoes to your diet for RS?
    I’m asking because if it’s the second, well, you could try the first and get both weight loss and RS (because you’d be eating a heck of a lot of potatoes and so recooled/reconstituted may get you up to useful quantities for RS, I think – tatertot had some numbers back when this was being discussed here).

  30. tatertot says:

    @Kyle – Hi-Maize scares me. Maybe I’m wrong about calling it GMO, but it isn’t regular, old corn. Also, the type of RS said to be RS-2, by the company, but RS-4 by others.

    RS-2 is naturally occurring RS, the same found in raw potato starch, RS-4 is chemically modified and not found in nature. Hi-Maize is used in baking. With RS-2, it should be impossible to bake with, so i don’t know how they are getting around that.

    Here’s a description of the types for anyone who hasn’t looked it up http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistant_starch:

    RS1 Physically inaccessible or digestible resistant starch, such as that found in seeds or legumes and unprocessed whole grains

    RS2 Resistant starch that occurs in its natural granular form, such as uncooked potato, green banana flour and high amylose corn

    RS3 Resistant starch that is formed when starch-containing foods are cooked and cooled such as in legumes,[2] bread, cornflakes and cooked-and-chilled potatoes, pasta salad or sushi rice. The process of cooking out the starch and cooling it is called retrogradation.

    RS4 Starches that have been chemically modified to resist digestion. This type of resistant starches can have a wide variety of structures and are not found in nature.

    In this paper:
    There is a discussion of the different types/brands of corn starches used:

    “…Hi-maize 260 and HYLON VII which were the best diets for butyrate production are both RS2-type starches, contain similar amounts of RS (46% and 48% respectively) [23] yet the total dietary fibre levels are quite different (60% and 18% respectively) [23]. The hydrothermal treatment also does not seem to have significantly improved fermentation, because HYLON VII is the base starch for the hydrothermal preparation of Hi-maize 260, and it was both of these RS forms that performed the best in terms of SCFA production including butyrate….on balance the RS2-type starches tended to perform much better than the single RS3-type starch (ie. Novelose 330). ..”

    It may very well turn out that Hi-Maize is the answer. I just can’t wrap my mind around a franken-corn source of RS. If this is what it takes to bring RS to the world, then maybe it’s a good thing. I just don’t see how they are baking bread with it when it’s not modified.

  31. tatertot says:

    grrrr…link to paper cited above: http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/6/1/11

    It’s actually a good one to read.

  32. tatertot says:

    Also @Kyle, re: “One great takeaway for me about your article is I’m now convinced I have not been eating enough and will up my consumption by two or three times (I was eating about 15 g per day which is three times the level obtained by the typical American diet.)”

    I estimated 15g/day was about all I could get, too, with potatoes and rice. I was making dried plantain chips, which I thought were giving me 25g/day, but when I started the 4TBS of raw potato starch, it made a difference almost overnight.

    I think my system was probably pretty well primed from the RS I was getting from potatoes, rice, and plantains and as soon as I added the potato starch it made an immediate, noticeable difference.

    With the dried plantain chips, I think they have a lot of RS, but maybe it is inaccessible due to the nature of the chips as opposed to the fine texture of the potato starch.

    All of the studies say the biggest limitation in studying RS amounts in different foods is that it changes so frequently with cooking methods, storage temps, and even eating/chewing differences.

    One thing I like about potato starch is that it has been studied and used extensively in experiments on RS. Plus, it’s cheap.

  33. golooraam says:

    hmmm, I did my first kefir fast day day before yesterday… I dropped 2.8lbs of bload, despite a quart for breakfast and a quart+ for dinner… but the constipation was not pleasant… perhaps this RS is what I need?

    anyone note if this has helped and/or hindered weight/fat loss?

  34. tatertot says:

    @golooraam – Weight loss, weight regulation, and hunger abatement have all been attributed to RS. Give it a try, but don’t expect immediate results–your guts may need time to repopulate with beneficial bacteria. I think the cultures found in kefir matched with the gut enhancing properties of RS should be a win-win situation for gut health and overall health, but maybe not a magic-bullet simply for weight loss.

    My view on RS is it should be an intrinsic part of diet, like the bone broths and organ meats we should also be eating regularly.

    I often wonder what would happen if a SAD eater, in the midst of metabolic syndrome, simply added 4TBS of potato starch to his diet…would it make any difference? I don’t know.

  35. Golooraam

    Constipation is an issue I never deal with.

    You know why? Because no animal can store shit indefinitely. Changing what the biota in your intestines have to deal with makes constipation predictable, but it’s always temporary.

    My advice to everyone is, if you’re constipated, double down. Eat twice as much of what you have been eating and show those little fuckers who’s boss,

  36. golooraam says:

    you know what Richard… you have a really good point and ARE TOTALLY FREAKIN RIGHT
    yesterday was a gluttonous totally non diet day…

    had a monster workout (for me anyways): 52 neutral grip pullups – strict form – 10 sets

    then I had a quart of raw kefir and then 3 kombuchas during the day

    lunch had a ton of indian food then a milkshake

    went out with the boys for ramen and whiskey

    then had a before dinner of paella and fries and more booze

    this morning: TMI but it was impressive :)

  37. @tatertot – Thanks for the article. Yes, it is a good read.

    I’m on the fence wrt whether potato starch or Hi-Maize is better (or whether Hi-Maize should be a concern). The article you referenced would tend to suggest that Hi-Maize 260 is superior to everything else, but that is a trial based on six different RS2 starches with only 12 rats in each test group plus a control. My only reservation in making decisions regarding corn is the fact that it has tremendous genetic diversity, fifteen times greater than the human genome (Source: . To me, that would indicate relative ease in naturally breeding many different characteristics into corn. (As a fascinating aside, there is speculation this is due to the fact that corn, or maize, was cultivated longitudinally across North and South America, whereas most other edible crops tended towards latitudinal cultivation – could not find the source on this….)

    Regardless, after upping my current starch consumption for a couple of weeks, I plan to test switching between Hi-Maize and raw potato starch to see if I notice any differences….

  38. Golooraam:

    Yea, people seem to be totally in love with their morning happy shit face. If they don’t get it, hell to pay.

  39. tatertot says:

    @kyle – I would love to hear what you think of Hi-Maize. Are you planning on using it raw or cooking with it? I saw the national marketing director of National Starch, makers of Hi-Maize, saying she puts 2TBS in a smoothie every day.

    I am on the fence with corn, also. Corn was a staple of many American civilizations, originating in central Mexico, I believe, and tinkered with for thousands of years by ancient man, resulting in corn for all climates and uses. The big difference is, the original way to eat corn was to soak it in ash water (a form of lye) for long times and then cook it. It was eaten closer to what we call hominy. Here’s a good description: http://www.thenourishinggourmet.com/2009/03/wisdom-from-the-past-nixtamalization-of-corn.html

    I have some seed corn from an old heirloom Native American strain of purple corn I am going to grow this summer and try to prepare in a traditional way.

  40. Woodwose says:

    How do i know if the potatoe starch i buy is raw or if it has been processed, should i use a blood glucose meter and check if my blood glucose only rises slightly?

    What happens with potatoe starch if i first use it in cooking with water wich makes it into an sort of gel, and then cool it, will it turn back into RS after cooling?

    Here in sweden we have used potatoe starch for a long as a traditonal cure for diarea and gut problems.

  41. tatertot says:

    @Woodwose – I don’t know how to tell if it’s unmodified other than it says “Unmodified” or “raw” on the package. I’m pretty sure that all potato starch sold for human consumption is raw and unmodified. Potato starch is modified for use in industrial applications like wallpaper glue and other adhesives.

    Maybe you could check with the manufacturer?

    Once you heat raw potato starch past 140-160 degF, the starch granules will swell and burst, turning them into readily-digestible starch. Cooling will only return a fraction to an RS state.

    In Sweden, how is potato starch traditionally used? raw or cooked? Very interesting!

  42. @tatertot – I’ve been eating it raw for the most part and substituting it for any recipes where starch is required (not that many for me, though I have been increasing my Chinese cooking lately). To condense a very long story, for about two months I’ve been consuming HM260 in a smoothie, though I haven’t been eating one every day. I’m now changing plan to eat a smoothie with store bought coconut kefir/berries/half banana/3 Tbls HM260 as my first meal of the day and another smoothie with homemade (finally!) whole milk kefir/berries/half banana/2 Tbls HM260 as my last meal of the day (someone in one of the comments a while back suggested including your RS2 in the evening – can’t remember who). That should get me in the range of 50g/day consumption of RS2 fiber I believe.

    As for my opinion of HM260 – not really sure what to say. No issues with using it and it appears to mix quite easily in a smoothie or during cooking – makes for a very slightly gritty smoothie, but nothing much more than whey or hydrolyzed collagen. The only reaction I’ve seen so far indicates it does seem to decrease my appetite, but I’m not sure that isn’t psychological suggestion from reading all these posts over the last few months. Richard’s comment on dreams sort of resonates with me though. My dreams do seem to have changed rather dramatically during those times I was consuming HM260 more consistently. It will be interesting to see the impact of much higher dosage and more consistent consumption.

    I’ll report back on this thread or a more current thread of Richard’s concerning RS.

  43. @Tatertot, have you heard of Superstarch? I’m a fan of Peter Attia & he thinks this shit is the best thing since cracked eggs. http://eatingacademy.com/sports-and-nutrition/introduction-to-superstarch-part-i

    I can’t see myself using it, but I wonder if the superstarch and resistant starch might be related.

  44. tatertot says:

    @Joshua – I’ll be darned! I learned something new.

    I had heard of Superstarch, but just blew it off as an expensive supplement Attia was hawking. Following your link, I found this paper: http://generationucan.com/pdf/technical-breakthrough-sports-innovation.pdf from the makers of SuperStarch, UCan. In the paper, they say:

    “Two peer-reviewed
    scientific studies have confirmed that ingestion of
    a novel heat-moisture processed cornstarch is
    superior to conventional treatments in preventing
    hypoglycemia over extended periods of time in
    subjects with Glycogen Storage Disease(4, 5)”

    A novel, heat-moisture processed cornstarch…hmmmm, why does that sound familiar?

    A few posts up, I posted this quote about Hi-Maize resistant corn starch: “The hydrothermal treatment also does not seem to have significantly improved fermentation, because HYLON VII is the base starch for the hydrothermal preparation of Hi-maize 260″

    Doesn’t that sound the same? I’ll bet SuperStarch is a mixture of Hi-Maize and some other things, but I can’t find what–they seem to keep this info very close. They probably don’t want people to figure out they are charging $50 for $5 worth of potato starch!

    Also in the paper:

    “n the intestines, SuperStarch is semi-resistant to
    digestion, but is eventually completely absorbed in
    to the bloodstream, thereby giving it a slow
    time-released absorption profile. Because of the low glycemic impact, there is also little
    stimulation of the hormone insulin following ingestion. ”

    Sounds like RS to me.

    Read the paper and the website http://www.generationucan.com/super.html replace the words SuperStarch with Potato Starch, and you will probably be ready to take the plunge.

  45. tatertot says:

    This must be where SuperStarch comes from: http://www.dfepharma.com/en/Excipients/Starch/Partly-pregelatinised-maize-starch.aspx#tab-overview

    This stuff is marketed to make pills out of…could it be the same thing?

    SuperStarch® 200 is a partly pregelatinised maize starch that integrates multiple functionalities of binder, disintegrant, lubricant and flow-aid. SuperStarch® 200 conforms to all tests in major pharmacopoeias.The main application areas of SuperStarch® 200 include direct compression tablet formulations as well as wet granulation and capsule formulations. SuperStarch® 200 is made from maize starch containing a mixture of amylopectin and amylose. The water soluble amylose in SuperStarch® 200 provides the binding needed for tableting and granulation. Amylopectin provides the structure of unruptured starch grains enabling disintegration of a tablet by swelling of the starch grains.”

  46. tatertot says:

    And an article on Superstarch from http://news.menshealth.com/the-patriots-secret-performance-enhancer/2012/02/03/

    “So what is it? The raw material is the same cornstarch sitting in your cupboard, says Jeff Volek, Ph.D., R.D., associate professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Connecticut. “The difference is that it’s been through a proprietary heat-moisture treatment, which changes the way the starch gets absorbed.”

    “One Men’s Health editor described it as “chalky” and another said it was “sort of like Pepto-Bismol.” But after all, it’s not a “sugary” drink—that’s the whole point, remember?—so don’t expect it to taste like a Kool-Aid.”

  47. The Kefir and Potato Starch combination is sounding like the most effective natural way to repopulate gut bacteria. Just picked up the Potato Starch. Got my Kefir grains a few days ago, so I’m looking forward to trying both.

  48. Dr. Curmudgeon Gee says:

    @RN,

    indeed that “no animal can store shit indefinitely.”

    however, “Eat twice as much” can be dangerous for some.

    when there is already a blockage, more fiber makes it worse; it could either result in

    1) “constipated diarrhea” (worse kind of constipation)

    and/or

    2) it comes out from the other end (vomit)

    it happened to a family of mine (too much fiber, yes) -> blockage went up to small intestine -> discomfort & vomit big time.

    the blockage has to be dealt with first. the buggers are the boss. it’s better to “unclog” before introducing fiber (+ kifir/fermented veg or probiotics).

    stay healthy,

  49. John, I have become very fond of 10oz kefir and 2T PS right before bed, and the ensuing dreamscape. Perhaps it won’t work that way for all or many, bit my fav.

  50. DCG

    I’m gonna poo poo that. Both diarrea and vomit are simple natural bodily functions to rectify a bad situation in the moment. Acutely, they are perfectly natural and healthy. And in fact, quick runny shit and quick to barf is likely a mark of good robust health, one’s body giving a fuck you immediately.

    My Dogs do both every now and then too, and seem completely fine.

  51. tatertot says:

    I’m going to be out of town until Sunday evening…I’ll try to catch up when I get back. It’s been fun, and I learned some things!
    Later,
    Tater

  52. LeonRover, ahaha, indeed it does not.
    There is perhaps one “temptation I can’t resist” …..and it’s “made of smoke” :D :D
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0NdJFmyLmMo

  53. Dr. Curmudgeon Gee says:

    @RN,

    vomiting or diarhea is a natural bodily reaction.

    but if the poop is already formed like a hard rock, no amount of vomiting can get rid of it nor loosen it, neither can fiber/probiotics.

    all the fiber does is make more (loose) stool in the queue piled up behind a hard rock.

    that’s why i call it “constipated diarrhea”

    1. cramps & bloating big time because it wants to move but the exit is entirely plugged.

    2. then food or drink -> vomit

    3. but it’s still plugged; you feel bloated & hungry & thirsty.

    am i clear? these are the symptoms i observed.

    i believe fiber/priobiotics are good for _preventative_ for really bad constipation.

    i reiterate once a person is there, the only way to get out of the stasis is to remove the plug (e.g., saline enema).

    please do not consume fiber for a bad bad bad constipation before that.

    may your gut be healthy,

  54. Woodwose says:

    “In Sweden, how is potato starch traditionally used? raw or cooked? Very interesting!”
    @tatertot, It taken directly from the package mixed with some water for treating diarea.

    I guess one way to check the quality RS in poatoe starch would be to see if it elicits the same rise in fasting blood glucose as an equivalent amount of maltodextrin. If the blood sugar rises alot less this would mean there is a decent amount of RS in the potatoe starch?

  55. SteveRN says:

    Couldn’t find the original article I read, but the newst studies say fiber is bad for constipation. The explanaiton one of the researchers use was, think of your colon as a highway, constipation is rush hour, cars are fiber. Adding more cars makes the situation worse. http://www.drbriffa.com/2013/03/05/study-finds-dietary-fibre-is-more-likely-to-be-cause-of-rather-than-a-cure-for-constipation-and-other-bowel-symptoms/ He gives the references to the study at the end. As a nurse, I have seen people die from constipation, not sure why we are not hearing more about this, other than it goes against conventional wisdom.

  56. SteveRN says:
  57. tatertot said…
    “…resistant starch is just another type of prebiotic whose fermentation by microbiota releases beneficial short chain fatty acids.”
    Is there much difference in GI response between RS and FOS?

  58. Nice point about diarhea and vomit being natural, Richard. They remind me of my severe lactose intolerance from time to time. Constipated diarhea sounds really nasty though

  59. Josh Almanza says:

    @tatertot
    What about sweet potato starch? How much does it contain? There is a good supplier of all these resistant starches here – http://www.barryfarm.com/flours.htm

  60. Orthorexia. Boy, if this discussion and topic isn’t exemplar de excellence, I don’t know what is.

    I mean, like, how did Mr. and Mrs. Grok ever survive without knowing this? I agree it is sorta interesting in the scientific sense, but SO much fretting and angst displayed above!

    The biggest potential advantage of this information is the fasting BG reduction, perhaps. It might also be an explanation why prickly pear leaves help in that matter. BTW, I have experienced a 25-30 point reduction in fasting BG by drinking cinnamon infusion. Really.

  61. “BTW, I have experienced a 25-30 point reduction in fasting BG by drinking cinnamon infusion. Really.”

    You say cinnamon infusion, I say orthorexia. What would Mr. & Mrs. Grok do? :)

  62. Dr. Curmudgeon Gee says:

    cinnamon tea + heavy cream

    cinnamon in cooking (e.g., stew)

    both taste better

  63. First, I’d like to say you’re all a bunch of cunts. Bloody ones at that.

    Second, I found unmodified potato starch at my local Hy-Vee Grocery store and it mixes great with Kefir. I’m using 8 Tb a day mixed with a quart of Kefir.

    How long until the magic starts happening?

  64. tatertot says:

    Cody – I think 8TBS a day is too much! Everything I’ve read, says up to about 50g/day of RS can be digested after 28 days. Also that amounts of about 70g/day can have negative consequences.

    1TBS of Bob’s Red Mill is weighs 12g and has 10g of carbs. It should therefore contain approx 7.5g of RS.

    8TBS could be over 60g. I am recommending a max of 4TBS (30g RS). You’d also maybe want to start slow since much of it will be wasted until you grow the gut microflora to digest it. See next post:

  65. tatertot says:

    This came from http://perfecthealthdiet.com/ in a blog comment, but here is a paper from 1922 in which they were trying to determine how much potato starch a grown person could digest. They didn’t even know about resistant starch back then! http://www.jbc.org/content/52/1/251.full.pdf

    The paper says some men experienced ‘pain or other disturbances’ from ingestion of raw starches, but they were giving them LOTS, like 180g/day worth, and also all different kinds.

    I loved reading this old paper. They were discovering RS, but didn’t know it. They saw that wheat and corn starch was completely digested, but potato and other starches not completely digested. That is now known to be because the RS is only digested as gut microflora populations allow. In more recent studies, they feed people potato starch or other RS, and see at first it is not completely digested, but after about 28 days, up to about 50g/day can be fully digested.

  66. tatertot says:

    pzo, et al; re: Orthorexia

    I had to try hard to wrap my mind around trying potato starch for RS before I started talking about it.

    Here’s why I can justify using potato starch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=75BbSlXxF9M I could make it myself, at home, in my pajamas, if I wanted to! In fact, I’m going to give it a try soon. (Please no comments on the lovely cook in the vid)

    Here’s why I can justify trying to increase RS in my diet: I think it’s very natural. I think our ancestors would have surely gotten way, way more RS than we do, even if we eat a paleo diet with plenty of potatoes. If we had to eat what we could find, and ate a lot of that raw, we would get the RS we need. Eating everything cooked and very little in the way of diverse tubers and other RS foods, we only get a fraction of the RS we need for a healthy gut. Since a healthy gut is paramount to a healthy body, I will try to make mine flourish with ample RS and not feel orthorexic in the least.

    I think one day RS will be a household word. When it is, just remember this: cheap potato starch is an awesome source of RS.

  67. tatertot says:

    @woodwose – Very interesting about raw potato starch and diarrhea. It is widely used in pig farming to prevent diarrhea in young piglets so they can be raised without antibiotics…so why not in humans? You could definitely do a test of your BG on potato starch vs sugar, I’d love to see results. I don’t think you will find a potato starch that is not resistant, though. It’s only when it’s heated that it develops a glycemic index. It would be cool to do one day, raw, next day cooked potato starch and chart the results.

    @ nigel – I don’t know about the difference in GI between FODMAPS (FOS) and RS. FOS does the same thing in the gut as RS, but the amounts are very small and all the FODMAPS also feed the harmful bacteria as well, which is why FOS and other FODMAPS can cause pain and gas while potato starch does not.

    @ joshua – I don’t think sweet potato flour is a good source of RS. Sweet potato starch is more of the amylopectin (sugary) nature while the RS sources are of the amylose (starchy) types of starch.

    I’m also not sure if the flours at your link are the same as starch. Surely they are starchy, but I think that flour contains more than purified starch, so may not work the same or at least be a less concentrated form of RS.

    If you look at the link of the paper from 1922 I posted above, you could make a good case for the RS content in the starches they used that weren’t fully digested, like rice, arrowroot, tapioca, and others. I hope Paul Jaminet or one of the really smart guys reads that paper and makes some recommendations on RS in other foods besides potato starch.

    It is very possible that rice flour and banana flour, both easily bought, are good sources of RS.

    As to determining

    • I would like to know about arrowroot & tapioca starch too as I cannot get hold of any more unmodified potato starch in the UK at the moment?

    • Chris, If you want to stick with Raw Potato Starch, go down to any Indian Grocery Shop in the UK and ask for “FARINA” Potato Starch. You will not be dissapointed…..price wise as well as quality wise.
      Good Luck

  68. @tatertot

    She’s adorable and I mean that seriously. I LOVE people like that. Wow, might be fun to do, but sure makes my 1+ pound bag from Bob’s seem like a bargain.

  69. tatertot says:

    Maybe she’ll do a video on how to make Hi-Maize or SuperStarch next…

  70. tatertot says:

    Came across this article today, addressing the ‘Australian Paradox’ which is that even though Australians eat the recommended amount of dietary fiber thought to prevent colon cancer, they are still dying of colon cancer at very high rates.

    A study concluded it’s not dietary fiber, but resistant starch that is missing from the diet.

    Their solution: Push grain and develop new grain with more RS. Someone should tell them about potato starch. Dr. Davis ought to love this:

    The Expert Roundtable recommends the following advice for health professionals:

    Target high risk consumers such as dieters, breakfast skippers; carbohydrate, gluten or wheat avoiders (often young women), people with celiac disease and older Australians

    Emphasize the importance of eating the right combination of fibres, “try a threesome of fibres” referring to soluble and insoluble fibre and resistant starch

    Address misconceptions of “fear of fibre” and encourage people to obtain it from grain foods, as fruit and vegetables alone are not adequate sources

    Advise gradual changes to dietary fibre intake as well as increasing water intake simultaneously for best results

    Increase understanding of normal stool size and frequency, gas and bloating

    Provide people with eating plans and practical, informative resources.

    from: http://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/2012/02/01/csiro-experts-recommend-new-preventative-steps-for-australian-digestive-health.html

  71. To coin a phrase: “Eat real foods.” Read that somewhere. :)

    “Fiber’, which is a misnomer, was the creation of one Dr. Kellog in order to hype his miracle corn flakes. If that wasn’t quackery enough, he also performed yogurt enemas in his clinic, and practiced celebate marriage. (Allegedly?) From that voodoo start, we are still being guided in our diet by that witch doctor.

    The Inuit diet had no fiber, but they often lived into old age.

    This site not only changed my understanding about fiber, but saved my mother from enduring misery: http://www.fibermenace.com/fibermenace/about_fm.html She was having diarrhea and IBS, even being hospitalized. Her physician and gastroenterologist both said, “More fiber!” When symptoms continued, I asked her if she was will to try a “low bulk” diet. “Anything!”

    Three days later, all symptoms gone.

  72. Dr. Curmudgeon Gee says:

    @pzo,

    i agree that for IBS, fiber is not one’s friend. (although i find his book confusing)

    doctors are stupid & evil in telling patients to eat more fiber, esp. from whole grain.

    Dr. Kellog seemed an ascetic puritan. who invented breakfast cereal.

  73. tatertot says:

    @Doc Gee/pzo – I asked Konstantin Monastyrsky personally what he thought of RS, and here is his reply:

    “The “resistant” in resistant starch means that this particular carbohydrates can’t be broken by enzymes in the small intestine, and gets down into the colon undigested, where it will act as a “prebiotic,” meaning it will provide the flora in the gut with “digestible” nutrients. The truth is, our innate flora is primarily anaerobic, and obtains all of its nutrients from the mucosal membrane. It doesn’t “live” of outside of mucosal layer, and doesn’t need “resistant” starch to function. To learn more about this subject, read my book about fiber.
    Furthermore, “glucose control” is governed by the pancreas, while “lipid metabolism” is governed by the liver. While the gut flora is of paramount importance, it doesn’t have any direct control of either mechanisms, only indirect, through its role in immunity and the synthesis of vitamins essential for energy and structural metabolism.”

    I think he has some of it wrong, and his hatred for fiber is clouding his judgement of RS, same as the carb-haters who hate RS soley because it’s a carb.

  74. Woodwose says:

    Ok tatertot and Richard Nikoley I tested my blood glucose 5 hours after my last meal by ingesting 70g potatoe starch (the Swedish brand name is ”Kockens potatismjöl”.)

    12:45 first meal of day 40g protein, 50g fat, and 40g carb

    17:45 6,1

    After this i ingested 70g of potatoe starch

    18:00 5,6
    18:15 5,3
    18:30 5,5
    18:45 5,2

    I think the reduction in blood sugar can be attributed to me moving around and cleaning my appartment. Clearly potatoe starch gives a very small if any increase in blood sugar.

  75. Woodwose

    Damn you for independently confirming one of the main themes of the post.

    Cunt!

    :)

  76. tatertot says:

    http://foodaust.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Hi_Maize-supplement_web.pdf

    Here’s a really good overview of RS. Funny, not one mention of potato starch. I think it escaped everyone’s attention because it’s not a food people eat, but an ingredient. Until now!

  77. Dr. Curmudgeon Gee says:

    @tatertot & pezo,

    1. Monastyrsky has had IBS; this may bias his opinions.

    2. i have no idea IBS sufferers could take RS tho.

  78. tatertot says:

    Woodwose – An even cooler experiment is the ‘second meal effect’. Take the potato starch as your first meal, then check your glucose after a carby meal 4-5 hours later. You will see a greatly blunted glucose response.

    For me, a pound of potato will spike my glucose to 180 or more at the one hour point, returning to normal in 3 hours. With a first meal of potato starch, the spike after 1 pound of potato is only 120 at 1 hour and return to normal in under 2 hours.

    This phenomenon is well-studied. It also works if taken in the evening to regulate the next day’s glucose.

    Two papers:
    http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/83/4/817.full

    http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/23/1_MeetingAbstracts/563.4

  79. tatertot says:

    @Dr. CG – I have seen several papers that say RS is very good for IBD, which includes Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis, but IBS may not be helped other than the effect of a healthier gut due to the nature of IBS.

    Read more: (at end of 4th para under ‘Review’

    “. IBS is characterised by disordered gut motility and pain with bloating, diarrhoea and/or constipation and while it can affect the whole gut, its primary focus appears to be the large bowel. The condition appears to be to be unrelated to fibre intake. IBD occurs in two main forms – ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The former occurs mostly in the distal colon and is characterised by surface ulceration and bleeding. Crohn’s disease may be found throughout the GI tract but has a primary focus at the ileo-caecal junction. The microflora have been implicated in both conditions but it appears that disordered cytokine production (possibly due to inadequate n-3 fatty acid intake) is involved in Crohn’s disease (Topping and Bird, 1999).

    The composition and state of the intracolonic environment is largely a product of the metabolic actions of the microflora and their interactions with their nutrient supply. Generally, these are viewed as positive and occur through the production of organic acids, especially short chain fatty acids (SCFA). These acids are important regulators of colonic physiological processes and appear essential for maintaining normal bowel function (Cummings and Macfarlane 1991; Velazquez et al., 1996). “

  80. Tatertot,

    Do you take the 4 TBS all at once or do you split it into two 2 TBS “servings”?

  81. tatertot says:

    @Jen – I don’t think it really matters. Some days, especially if I make a smoothy, I take it all at once. Some days, I add 2TBS to milk or kefir in the morning and maybe something else later in the day.

  82. Thinking about resistant starch, it seems to me the the beneficial mechanisms are a positive change in gut flora, and also the addition of short chain fatty acids, especially butryate. This made me think about a recipe I saw a while back about fermenting potatoes, as a way to help break down starch before eating them. Also, adding some potato starch to fermenting kefir (maybe on a second ferment) might really kick up the probiotic levels. Might be worth trying. Here is the recipe – http://www.thehealthyhomeeconomist.com/video-fermented-potatoes/

  83. tatertot says:

    @John – I think that is a great idea. You know how the old-timers in Alaska made sourdough bread starter? Potatoes and corn meal fermented in milk near the woodstove. Smells like ass, but makes great bread!

    As an alternative to using potato starch, a cut up potato or a potato boiled and mashed in water may even be better. The resistant nature of the potato starch might make it not want to ferment, but cooking it first may be what you need.

    Recipe for Sourdough Bread Starter:
    ALASKAN SOURDOUGH
    MASHED POTATO STARTER
    3 c. thick potato water
    3/4 tsp. yeast
    3 tsp. sugar
    3 c. flour

    Boil scrubbed potatoes with jackets on until they fall to pieces. Lift skins out, mash potatoes, making a puree. The richer the potato water, the richer the starter. Put all ingredients into a sourdough pot, jar or crock (never metal), be sure to use extra large pot, dough may more than tripled while fermenting. Beat until smooth and creamy. Cover, set aside in a warm place to start fermentation. Can be used in three days, however, the longer you ferment, the better the dough. Add fuel: a teaspoon of sugar and a couple of flour, beat, add water if necessary. Keep it warm. After a week, effervescing with a million bubbles, looks like sour cream, smells like sour cream, but is rich, luscious sourdough. (Never add anything to the pot but sugar, flour or water). You add fuel to pot after each time you remove starter for recipes.

  84. Woodwose says:

    Sorry Richard, but The Starch is strong in this one!

    :-)

  85. tatertot says:

    Resistant Starch contents comparisons, from http://jn.nutrition.org/content/128/3/651.full

    Found some interesting data. The study linked above was designed to test RS contents in various foods, but also checked the RS in different starches.

    They determined that RS values are hard to pin down, but the best way was with ileostomy patients, because they could intercept the starch as it departed the small intestine to see how much remained. Any starch detected here would be resistant starch, as it escaped digestion in the small intestine.

    Their conclusions are just as we have been discussing here: RS is available in lots of foods, but it would be hard to get 50g from food, especially paleo food. Baked goods with Hi-Maize cornstarch seems to be the only way to get a reliable amount of RS into a standard diet.

    This table really stood out though: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/128/3/651/T2.expansion.html

    Table 2 shows the RS content in several starches: Raw potato starch, cooked potato starch, raw corn starch, and Hi-Maize (Extruded retrograded high amylose cornstarch).

    Here are the advertised values of RS in these starches, as determined by in vivo calculations:

    Raw potato starch – 66- 87%
    Cooked potato starch – 0%
    Raw corn starch – 69-71%
    Hi-Maize – 30-35%

    Here are the RS contents of these foods as measured in vitro in ileostomy patients:

    Raw potato starch – 83%
    Cooked potato starch – 0%
    Raw corn starch – 50%
    Hi-Maize – 35%

    The reason that Hi-Maize falls short, is that it is heat-modified so it can withstand the heat of baking. Raw corn starch would be a much better source if used cold, as in the SuperStarch Energy Drinks by Generation UCan.

    Still, you can see, that raw potato starch blows them all away, and is much cheaper per pound than the others.

  86. @tatertot – great information wrt ileostomy patients and starch. Question – do you find that potato starch changes the flavor or consistency of your smoothies?

  87. tatertot says:

    @Kyle – Yes, it makes them better! I have been making a morning smoothie with 2 egg yolks, 1 cup coffee, 1 banana, handful of blueberries and 4TBS potato starch. Without the starch, this would be watery and kind of gross. With the starch, it’s thick and creamy. Made with milk, kefir, or coconut milk it’s really awesome.

    When added to yogurt, it makes the consistency thicker.

    If you don’t have enough liquid to potato starch ratio, it can be a bit chalky, like pepto-bismal, but never what you would think of as ‘nasty’.

    I’ve done this, too: Mix 4TBS of potato starch with just enough water to form a runny paste, resembling sour cream, mash a banana into this and mix well. Add a spoonful of cocoa powder and some frozen blueberries–it’s like the most awesome ice cream you’ve ever had.

  88. @tatertot – I guess I’m going to change my protocol – 50/50 mix of Hi-Maize and potato starch. Hi-Maize based on the data I’ve seen to date and potato starch because that ileostomy study is about as accurate as you can get for what really counts as RS that makes it to the large intestine…..

  89. tatertot says:

    @Kyle – Oh, I forgot you are the guy using Hi-Maize! I think Hi-Maize has it’s place, like in baking. If you are using it in smoothies, I’m sure it’s fine. Maybe even good to blend them as you are getting RS from different sources that way.

    Here’s an interesting study, if you like reading studies: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/69/4/647.full.pdf

    They compared the glycemic response of several different common foods with added RS. It looks to me like the White Wheat Bread (WWB) with Raw Potato Starch was the winner! They mixed RPS with olive oil to form a spread (how cool).

    Have a look at the charts and try to read the words, it’s pretty heady, but I think bread+RPS was the winner.

    I can see if somebody would run with this, a whole product line could be made for RS: Spreads, smoothie mixes, yogurts, milk drinks, desserts, frozen treats…

    Richard and Paul Jaminet should get together and develop a line of RS products…if they do–I want free samples!

  90. OK, before any of you get any idea I deleted comments, it’s that you put comments here when still hitting the previous host, in between the time of the files transfer and new install and the time the new host got propagated.

    tatertot:
    Submitted on 2013/04/30 at 07:44
    @Jen – It would have to be cold. Not ice cold, but not over luke warm. Potato starch tends to gel easily, which makes it a good thickener. Once the thickening action starts, the RS is gone.
    Warm bone broth + potato starch = gravy
    Get some greek yogurt, or evn the cheap Dannon fruity stuff and mix it with that. It’s a perfect combination. I was reading last night that combining resistant starch with probiotics in food is preferable because the RS encapsulates the probiotic ‘bugs’ and helps them survive the trip through the stomach and small intestine.
    It’s also easy enough to mix it with water or milk. There is no taste.

    Jen:
    Submitted on 2013/04/30 at 07:11
    @ Tatertot,
    Thanks for the reply and info. One more question. If I were to add RPS to a drink, would that drink have to be cold for the RPS to retain its RS content or could I mix it in with say a warm cup of beef bone broth?

    Jen:
    Submitted on 2013/04/30 at 13:46
    @TaterTot,
    Again thanks for the info. I actually hadn’t had issues with my bone broth thickening after mixing RPS in, just some whiter coloring. Than again, I was drinking it right away. I have dairy issues (casein) so yogurt isn’t really an option, but have drank it with a meal containing pickles to get the RS/probiotic combo.

  91. I just realized that there is a cooking method that could cook potatoes without destorying resistant starch- Sous Vide. If you set the temperature to 150 or lower, that should still cook the potato without destorying the resistant starch. Might work in the oven if you can set the temperature low enough, but not sure if the temperature control would be accurate enough.

  92. That’s an interesting idea, John. Will have to give a try.

    I thought it was 140, though

  93. ilise says:

    Tatertot..did you have changes in sleep patterns as well? Does raw potato starch offer any nutritional value?
    Also is raw taro powder or raw inulin powder considered good sources of resistant starch?

    Any one have a source for raw green banana powder?

    thank

  94. ilise says:
  95. I’ve been drinking a quart of Kefir as my evening meal with 4 Tb of RPS (per Tatertot’s caution about not overdoing it) and I wake up feeling a lot better in the morning. But for some reason, this seems to wire me at night? I have a hard time falling asleep.

    Does this happen to anyone else?

  96. tatertot says:

    @ilise – The potato starch you linked to looks really good, it’s about 4 times as expensive as Bob’s Red Mill, but it’s organic if that’s what you are looking for.

    Here is Plantain Flour for $10/lb http://www.amazon.com/Barry-Farm-Plantain-Flour-lb/dp/B000F9ZM5Y/ref=pd_sim_sbs_gro_1

    And here is banana flour, from Australia:
    On this last link, they list the nutritional profile of the flour and say it’s 68% RS.

    I have heard that banana flour and plantain flour is the same thing.

    Raw Potato Starch contains virtually no micronutrients. The banana/plantain flours contain more as they are not isolated starch, but the whole ground fruit.

    Inulin powder is not RS, but it is a plant fiber that resists digestion. It is usually avoided by people with FODMAP intolerance, while potato starch is not a FODMAP. That being said, Inulin powder would probably be a good choice to put a bit of in a smoothy with potato starch as Inulin is considered to be a prebiotic, just like potato starch.

    Taro powder also probably has very little RS as it seems to be made of amylopectin starch, which is not resistant. If you read up on ‘Poi’, which is fermented taro, it sounds like a really good source of nutrition.

    I’m thinking a really good idea would be to make a mix of known RS starches and prebiotics, like potato starch, taro powder, banana flour, inulin, etc… and make a smoothy or mix with milk or yogurt every day. Go heavy on the potato starch or banana flour and a bit of the others.

    I haven’t had any issues with sleep. The only change I would say is sleeping better, but can’t say for sure that’s from the RS.

  97. Cody

    Funny you should mention that but I have too had nights where I thought i ought be in bed, the clock said so, but I’m just not tired. Got up and did a couple of hours of work/reading the other night, back & slept a great additional three hours.

    I have no idea for sure, but I do note that my dogs (mammals) are not really designed for 16 hours awake, 8 of sleep. They are awake when not tired, sleeping when tired.n Whenever that happens to be 24 on 7.

    Radical!

  98. ilise says:

    thanks Tater.. I have ibs -bloating and along with this bloat came increased weight gain along waistline. I did read one of those studies mention resistant starch cause problems in pigs with increased bad bacteria of some sort -dont remember the technical name. Have you heard back from any one using potato starch who also has issues with bloating and /or weight problems. Any worse or better from the regimine?

  99. ilise says:

    thanks for the link for banana starch. Mt Uncles looks good though cant figure out how much I would need per day based on the nutritional facts. Any idea?
    http://www.bananaflour.com.au/cms/Article.aspx?ID=14d4846c-bd56-4a98-af63-8d5adb536b33

    Have you tried this particular brand and if so what does it taste like and how much for shipping to US?

  100. tatertot says:

    @ilise – I have never tried banana flour, and don’t know about shipping from Australia–sorry. I do intend to get some of the plantain flour from Amazon next time I order along with potato starch.

    If I were just using banana or plantain flour, I’d try to incorporate 3-5TBS per day. That would be roughly 18-30g of RS.

    I don’t know of anyone with IBS-B trying potato (or any resistant) starch, you could be the first! Start with 1TBS a week and add 1TBS every week for 4 weeks. Stop if you think it’s not helping. It’s not a drug, so no harm–no foul.

    When you read about IBS, they warn you to stay away from starch, but regular starch is digested by the good and bad gut microbes. Resistant Starch seems to be mainly only digested by the good microbes.

    With banana/plantain flour, you will also be getting a good bit of fiber. Fiber is usually frowned upon by IBS people, right? Maybe better to try potato starch first.

  101. ilise says:

    Thanks again, Tater. Do you think the banana starch on amazon the same as the Australian brand?
    Im assuming they are. If you try the banana flour please report back on taste. I read on the Australian site that theirs is an “earthy taste” which sounds great since I hate the flavor of banana. Green banana taste would be ok as well but ripe banana flavor would not work for me.

  102. ilise says:

    Also..
    will give the potato starch a try and report back. I have hypoglycemia and sleep issues so hopefully it will help.
    Would love to hear others experience using potato starch

  103. Tater, sure you don’t mean 1 tbsp per DAY, and increase by 1 T every week?

  104. tatertot says:

    Yeah, that’s what I meant!

    I did a quick google for RS+hypoglycemia and found a couple things from 2005-2008 where diabetics were targeting RS to prevent hypoglycemia, but this was before Hi-Maize and they were just using beans and cold potatoes. Everybody misses potato starch! I saw mention of special snack bars with RS to prevent hypoglycemia, also.

  105. jlocicero says:

    I find all of this really interesting, but I am really missing something. What is the reason for doing this, for eating RS? Is it something to do with satiety and decreasing hunger? Is this something one could do when starting out with paleo/ancestral eating? Or is it more suited when you are a little more experienced down the paleo path?

    Not trolling, genuinely interested and confused. Thanks!

    • For myself, I am finding over time great benefits in general satiation (it takes quite a lot of time to become _really_ hungry). Don’t know whether to attribute it to the complete nutrition of a lot of milk and kefir I’m taking, or the RS, or a combo of both.

  106. tatertot says:

    @jlocicero – The big things that got me interested in RS are lipid metabolism and insulin/glucose response.

    The last couple years, every paleo writer wrote about the importance of gut health. Gut flora is associated with every aspect of metabolism. I believe that RS is the key to getting gut flora in optimal condition.

    For years, everyone has bought into the concept of ‘probiotics’, ie. eating certain foods (yogurt, sauerkraut, kefir) to increase populations of beneficial gut microbes. RS acts along with these microbes, and the ones already in your system, to provide an environment which favors the growth of beneficial microbes and lessens the bad ones (e.coli and salmonella, for instance).

    If you do a google search on resistant starch, you will turn up hundreds of articles, studies, and papers on the benefits of increasing RS in your diet, but the advice to eat more cold potatoes, beans, and whole wheat only provides a fraction of the RS you need to effect change in gut flora as shown by hundreds of studies.

  107. jlocicero says:

    @Richard Nikoley – Is your use of kefir and potato starch a refinement of the potato diet hack you wrote about earlier? Is this your usual breakfast, and/or what time of day do you drink this?

    @tatertot – Thanks for the concise description. I’ve been eating paleo/primal for several years, but unfortunately in a yo-yo kind of way. I fall off the wagon a lot. I have made a renewed effort, and I am now in the early stages again (eating well, have lots of weight to lose, probably lots of inflammation to get rid of). Am I at an appropriate place to try to modify my gut flora using potato starch?

    Thanks again!

  108. tatertot says:

    I think every person in the world owes it to themselves to maximize the health of their intestinal health. I have never seen a situation described where increased RS consumption is contraindicated.

    More probiotics such as kefir and fermented veggies plus RS from potato starch, Hi-Maize, and lots of RS foods should be good for everybody on the planet with an intact digestive system.

  109. Jlocicero

    If you subscribe to the newsletter you get an email once you confirm with my roughly 6 or so weeks of reports on having almost nothing but milk and kefir. More relaxed, now, but still lots of dairy. Some eggs, bits of meat here & there, etc.

    The hypertrophy is pretty intense, especially since I spend about 10-15 mon only in the gym twice per week, but always very heavy.

  110. jlocicero says:

    @tatertot – Good stuff. Thanks again.

    @Richard Nikoley – Got the newsletter, and I will dive in now. Thanks!

  111. MsMcGillicuddy says:

    @tatertot – would potato “products” such as potato flour (dried, ground potatoes) and potato flakes (dried, flaked potato) fall into the RS3 category since obstensibly to create them, potatoes are cooked then dried, but not reheated (until you add them to a recipe?)
    Also, suddenly green banana flour is popping up everywhere online. I understand that to be dried bananas that are then ground. When substances such as banana flour and potato flour are added to recipes that require heat, doesn’t that destroy the RS?

    Thanks, MsM.

  112. tatertot says:

    @MsMcG – Potato Flour is made from cooked and ground up potatoes where potato starch is made from ground up raw potatoes. The starch in potato flour would be considered ‘pre-gelatinized’ starch, and not a good source or RS. It’s used to add texture to baked goods.

    Potato flakes are made the same way–pre-cooked and flaked.

    Green banana flour is a bit different. It’s made by grinding and screening dried green bananas, plantains actually, as is an awesome source of RS.

    I was looking where to buy some and found this company website
    with this description:

    “Bananas are one of the most nutritious foods on the planet. WEDO Gluten Free packs over five pounds of delicious bananas into every one-pound container, providing more vitamins, mineras, and nutrients than any other gluten free flour product on the market. WEDO Gluten Free banana flour provides over 5,200mg of potassium in every container, that’s equivalent to the amount of potassium contained in over ELEVEN bananas!! With exceptional taste and texture, banana flour bakes, cooks and mixes well in all gluten free recipes. The high starch content gives you the ability to create more in the kitchen using less flour. If a recipe calls for one cup of gluten free flour, you will be pleased to know only ½-¾ cup of WEDO banana flour is needed. WEDO banana flour is free of preservatives, bleaching and processing, giving you the opportunity to cook with 100% all-natural wholesome goodness in every tasty recipe! WEDO banana flour is made from green plantain bananas, a staple food for many poor countries but rarely mentioned in the United States. These fruits are one of a handful of foods containing RS 2 , an important form of resistant starch. Resistant starches, unlike normal starches, are not digested in the small intestine, providing numerous benefits including preventing colon cancer and diabetes, promoting of weight loss, and boosting the immune system. Currently, western diets are getting only 3-7 grams of resistant starch each day, falling well short of the recommended amount of 15-20 grams (Brown 2004). WEDO Banana flour has 82 grams of RS 2 in each package, making it an essential addition to a healthy diet.”

    So, by there estimate of 82g per pound (453g) it would be approximately 18% RS by weight, or a little less than 2g per TBS.

    Figures I have seen for plantain flour show it to be closer to 60-80% RS, so I think the manufacturer got some bad advice on the content of RS.

    Either way, green banana flour is a good source of RS. I will look around to see if I can find a more accurate amount.

  113. tatertot says:

    Just re-read what I posted and wanted to clarify: The RS in GBF would be destroyed if used in cooking–would have to be eaten raw, as in a smoothie or mixed with milk or other liquid. I have never tried it so can’t comment on taste and texture.

  114. tatertot says:

    This paper put the RS of raw plantains at 53%: http://ift.confex.com/ift/2004/techprogram/paper_24360.htm

    “Resistant starch content in raw plantain was 53.6 g/100 g and decreased with autoclaving at 120 °C (3.69 g/100 g). It is apparent therefore, that unripe raw plantain has considerably high levels of resistant starch”

    This would mean a TBS of green banana flour contains about 5g of RS, which is probably closer to the correct amount, putting it on par with Hi-Maize corn starch.

  115. silvia says:

    Hello, I know where to find ORGANIC BANANA FLOUR, and I am learning a lot about banana four for couple moths…and the one thing I can say it is just amazing…here are some more info…I just loved everything that was post here….
    - Gluten Free
    - NO GMO
    - Resistant Starch Flour
    - Organic
    - Green banana NOT Plantain
    - banana flour is three times richer in minerals than wheat flour, and is a great gluten-free product.

    HEALTH BENEFITS

    - Prevent colon cancer and promote colon health
    - Help treat and prevent diabetes
    - Lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels
    - Increase absorption of minerals, especially calcium
    - Prevent Osteoporosis
    - Boost the immune system by being a prebiotic
    - Promote weight loss
    - Prevent Osteoporosis

    - Rich source of:
    1.) magnesium (which helps bones absorb calcium and remain strong)

    2.) folate (forms of the water soluble B9 vitamin that is vital for fighting birth defects)

    3.) fiber

    4.) potassium

    5.) vitamin C

    6.) vitamin B6

    Where to use Banana Flour:

    cereal, snacks, smoothies, juice, yogurt, cake, bread, pizza,

    So, if you would like more info please contact me at [email protected]

  116. silvia says:

    Today I made Zucchini Muffins with green banana flour…and was delicious

  117. ilise says:

    Im wondering if the starch that collects at the bottom of the cup after juicing a potato in a juicer would work as well as the dried potato starch?

  118. ilise says:

    Tater how much rs in potato starch tbs?

  119. John W says:

    @Tatertot-
    I am on the low histimine diet,so potato and banana starch is out.For probiotics I take the soil based.What would be my strategy for RS? would it be white rice flour(not from the southern U.S.)?Thanks for any tips you may be able to give.

  120. tatertot says:

    @Silvia – sounds good, but just wanted to make sure you realize that cooking with the GBF destroys the RS in it–has to be used raw for RS. Do you work for a company that makes green banana flour?

    @Ilise – Did you look at this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=75BbSlXxF9M it shows how to make potato starch. Yes, the stuff that collects after juicing is potato starch, when dried it should yield approx 6-8g per TBS.

    @John – I don’t know. Can you have corn? Maybe Hi-Maize would be good for you. Also isn’t banana normally allowed on a histamine diet? You could talk to whoever is giving you advice, maybe the problems from potatoes are in the skin and flesh and not the isolated starch.

  121. @tatortot, have you done any research into Larch Arabinogalactan? I’m not sure if it would be considered a form of RS or not, but from what I’ve seen it seems to be similar in it’s prebiotic-like properties. I tried some supplements a while back, with a total of just 370mg of LA per day, for a month. Trying to stay out of the TMI cringe-zone here for everyone’s benefit — I can say that the effects were VERY healthy (w/o being uncomfortable) in that dept. Also one thing odd I noticed is that these supplements produced an awesome feeling of calm in my gut, but I can’t say for sure if it was entirely the LA responsible for that as they had several other ingredients (though the LA was presumably the only ingredient that was added specifically for bowel health).

    A good over-view on LA here: http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/5/5/463.pdf.

    I have mixed feelings on LA which is why I’m asking for other opinions; I have a hard time seeing LA as part of my (or anyone’s) ancestral diet, but it did seem to improve my gut function.

  122. tatertot says:

    @DJ – I think LA falls into the ‘not RS’ category, but is probably a very good supplement. It seems to have many of the same properties that make some mushrooms and other medicinal plants so great.

    From: http://www.raysahelian.com/arabinogalactan.html
    “Effects of dietary larch arabinogalactan on gastrointestinal and blood parameters in healthy human subjects.
    J Am Coll Nutr. 2001. Robinson RR, Feirtag J, Slavin JL. Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota
    Larch arabinogalactan is a non-digestible soluble dietary fiber that resists hydrolytic enzyme action and enters the large bowel intact where it is fermented by resident microflora. To determine whether Arabinogalactan has similar physiological properties to other soluble dietary fibers, we examined the effect of 15 and 30 g per day of a commercially available AG from Western Larch on several gastrointestinal and blood parameters. Gastrointestinal parameters included fecal microflora, fecal enzyme activity, fecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal pH, fecal weight, transit time and bowel frequency. Blood parameters included total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo-A1, Apo-B, glucose and insulin. The study consisted of two three-week diet treatments with no washout period. Participants (n=20, 11 males, 9 females) consumed their usual diet in addition to 15 or 30 g Arabinogalactan in a beverage sweetened with aspartame as compared to their usual diet with the control beverage. Significant increases in total fecal anaerobes were observed with 15 g and 30 g Arabinogalactan . A significant increase in Lactobacillus spp. was observed when subjects consumed Arabinogalactan for a total of six weeks regardless of dose. There were no significant changes in other microflora, fecal enzyme activity, transit time, frequency, fecal weight, fecal pH and short-chain fatty acids. Fecal ammonia levels decreased with 15 g and 30 g Arabinogalactan. No significant changes in blood lipids or blood insulin were observed. These data suggest that dietary Arabinogalactan is easily incorporated into the diet, well tolerated in subjects and has some positive effects on fecal chemistry. arabinogalactan larch research.”

    Thanks for the heads-up!

  123. Loving this whole resistant starch thing. Very interesting.

    First, I have found my dreams to be more memorable taking potato starch before bed as well. Second, I ordered some of the Hi-Maize from Amazon. It blends amazingly well into a banana + milk/kefir smoothie and has almost zero detectable grit (vs potato starch which I do find somewhat gritty mixed in a smoothie, although not altogether horrible, just somewhat gritty).

  124. Ha, Mark, I actually love the very mild grittiness (or, earthiness, I suppose). Different strokes.

  125. John W says:

    The problem with potatoes in general is that they are nightshades.Would the isolated potato starch be void of the nightshade properties?

  126. tatertot says:

    @JohnW – No idea. It seems a good possibility that the problems with nightshades would not be in the starch, but in the non-starch parts and skin, but I don’t know.

  127. John W says:

    Thanks Tatertot-You are very patient and have given very informative answers…I will spend a lot time on Google tonight researching my own possibilities for using RS giving my food intolerance.I believe a healthy gut can circumvent a multitude of sins.

  128. ilise says:

    Tater -thanks. My potato starch gets here Monday. Looking forward to trial.

    Mark- how much do you take before bed?

    DJ- what brand larch did/do you use and how much of serving is 370mg? (seem small considering the study Tater cited) Any other positive results -I read it works like echinachea.

  129. tatertot says:

    @ilise/John W – so many supplements we take have no noticeable or even measurable results. We take Vit D and then can get a blood test to measure Vit D levels and see that it goes up, but mostly we take supplements on faith.

    With the potato starch, I saw very real results. My high fasting blood glucose dropped by about 20 points from ‘pre-diabetic’ to perfectly normal in 2 weeks. I also noticed fairly quick changes in bowel movement regularity and consistency. Additionally my cholesterol numbers all improved drastically over the last 6 months.

    Not sure what your angle is, but hopefully you will see some of the same kind of benefits that aren’t just imaginary or wishful thinking. I think any time you enhance the gut flora’s living condition, good things will happen.

    As to supplements like Larch Arabinogalactan; I think that ancestral eating plans included all kinds of things just like this. All ancient society had shaman-like members that seemed to know what herbs and mushrooms could be used to heal and the average diet was probably full of strange little twigs and barks that did things we are only beginning to see.

    When we try to break the ancestral diet down into protein-fat-carb, we are only seeing a small fraction of what they ate to remain healthy. I hope that it turns out that resistant starch is one of those things that has a tremendous impact on gut health and overall metabolic functioning. I am glad to see you guys taking this on as N=1 and hope you report back with good or bad results.

  130. ilise says:

    Tatertot, that is quite a difference in fasting blood glucose.

    I have a normal fasting bg but it can bounce pretty high with most carbs–like 120-180. Im wondering if your glucose is normal after meals too now? Also how long after you stop taking the potato starch until your fasting bg reverts? I think you answered before but what is your dosing schedule look like during the day?

    Also wondering if you know if kelp has resistant starch. It most def works for my hypoglycemia and I sleep better when I take it too. Only I have to take about a tbs and am worried about the heavy metals.

    thanks again

  131. tatertot says:

    If I take 4TBS first thing in the morning, my FBG will be in the 90′s, the rest of the day my BG won’t go much over 120 no matter what I eat. If I take it at night, my FBG will be in the 80′s, but tend to spike a bit higher after meals. I think it all averages out. Has to be better than FBG of 130 and spikes to 200 after meals.

    I have been kind of experimenting with different schedules, this past week I mixed 4TBS with yogurt at lunch. That works really well for me, schedule wise. I don’t think the timing really matters.

    I think if you stopped taking it, BG would revert the next day. I may try in a few weeks. I think the BG effect is due more to the glycemic index effect than the gut flora effect, but it may be both in action.

    Kelp certainly does not have RS. Lots of iodine. Not sure what else. From the internet:

    “Kelp belongs to the kingdom Chromista. Plants are photosynthetic and store energy in the form of starch. Kelp are also photosynthetic, but produce sugars and not starch. Also, kelp and other chromists have “chlorophyll c” which gives it he characteristic brownish tint. This pigment and others that chromists contain are not found in any “plant.” “

  132. silvia says:

    Tatertot: I have been look for answer that you can NOT heat banana flour and I can not find any thing that tells that…I found this:
    Green Banana Flours can also be used in preparations of cakes, breads, pies and pancakes. It’s okay to warm them, because the process of dehydration keeps most of the nutrients.Usually, the drying process is through an oven with hot air circulation and the correct temperature is 48 degrees.
    I can be wrong. Could you please tell me a little be more.??
    Thank you

  133. Anyone have issues with increased flatulence when adding RS, at least during the adjustment period for 28 days? I’ve noticed I’ve been farting far more since adding RPS (about a week so far), but I’m wondering if this will go away after the adjustment period is over.

  134. ilise says:

    thanks Tater I am curious about the bacteria flora effect on blood glucose which is why I asked about how long it takes to revert. I do know for sure that my blood sugar gets worse after antibiotics which makes me wonder if I lost too much flora to control blood glucose normally.

    Jen – when you start feeding the bacteria there will be some gas-which is seen as a good thing.

  135. ilise says:

    Tater-have you tried spreading out the four tbls throughout the day? Do you take with or between meals?
    Does rs require additional water consumpution?

  136. @ Tatertot:
    -Just want to confirm that 1 avg. UNCOOKED potato contains 50g RS?
    So 1 raw potato and one would consume a sufficient amount of RS to see benefits yes?

  137. tatertot says:

    @Silvia – The RS in green banana flour is definitely going to disappear when it is used in cooking. The only RS that stays when cooked with has been artificially enhanced, as with the Hi-Maize corn starch.

    Normal resistant starch undergoes the natural process of swelling and bursting when subject to heat as described in this paper: http://ift.confex.com/ift/2004/techprogram/paper_24360.htm

    ” Resistant starch content in raw plantain was 53.6 g/100 g and decreased with autoclaving at 120 °C (3.69 g/100 g). It is apparent therefore, that unripe raw plantain has considerably high levels of resistant starch, and much smaller amounts of beta-glucans and fructans. In addition, while fructan and beta-glucan content is not greatly affected by moist heat, resistant starch is susceptible to changes with increased processing temperature. This is possibly due to gelatinization and enhanced solubilization of plantain resistant starch with processing. ”

    In this case, they showed that heating raw, dried plantain (which is what green banana flour is) reduced the RS from 53% to 3.69%. Quite a change.

  138. tatertot says:

    @Jen – I think there is an adjustment time involved. When I first started trying to get loads of RS thru foods, I noticed increased flatulence the first couple weeks. When I switched over to potato starch I was pretty well adjusted to RS and it went away. After several months of this, I now notice that a huge salad with a variety of raw veggies seems to make me pass gas more than I remember from before.

    I think it may be wise for people to start out slowly with potato starch and work their way up, giving flora a time to adapt.

  139. tatertot says:

    @Ilise – I don’t think it requires more water. Hadn’t really thought about it, though.

    As to flora and glucose control, there certainly is a lot written on this, such as: http://images.abbottnutrition.com/ANHI2010/MEDIA/Second%20Meal%20Effect.pdf

    “The mechanism of action behind the second meal effect has been assumed to
    be a direct consequence of prolonged glucose absorption leading to: stable insulin
    levels, decreased tendency for glucose to fall to sub-fasting levels, minimal release of
    NEFAs, and maintenance of glucose uptake by peripheral tissues . However, a
    growing body of animal data suggests that the effect may also be mediated by SCFA
    produced from colonic fermentation whereby SCFA attenuate postprandial blood ”

    The SCFA they are referring to is the byproduct of the RS being metabolized by gut flora.

  140. Make your own resistant starches: Amylase Inhibitors should give the same end result, pun intended. Starch blockers. I’ve used Natrol Carb Intercept off and on for a few years. Eat a bunch of simple carbs, take two or three capsules ahead or simultaneously, and sure enough, more flatulence.

    Anyway, that’s my theory. Maybe someone can point to an error in my thinking.

  141. tatertot says:

    @ilise – I have not tried spreading throughout the day, although in many of the studies, they did just that. It was common to have the test subjects eat a bit of RS with each meal to total 20-60g throughout the day.

    I have tried splitting it in half with a lunch time yogurt mix and an evening smoothie. Didn’t make any noticeable difference. I think it’s just a matter of getting it in no matter how or when.

    There is no protocol for what we are doing, it’s possible that splitting it up is better for absorption.

  142. @tatertot

    My experience exactly. PS, not much gas, but eat a big ass salad (with garbanzos, b/c me lub in salad), and I might could just fly without wongs.

    Ok, here’s an anecdote. Allergy season has been the worst for me in 2 decades. Usually I tough out rough spots in spring, little to no meds. Not this year, so I resorted to meds. Trying to sta on top, I took Claratin three mornings in a row last week, MTW. It was only on Thursday that I realized I had been grabbing the wrong box, and all became crystal clear: why my allergies had not bee helped and why I was farting like a brewmeister.

    I had been taking a generic Immodium every day.

    It has taken a week or so of kefir to get back to normal.

  143. tatertot says:

    @Ben – Using the info from charts here:

    A large potato, 300 grams in weight, should give about 45g of total starch (From Table 1, fresh potato). Of this 45g total starch, 72% is considered RS. This would put the RS content of a large potato at 32g.

    Further down the table, under ‘starches’, it shows potato starch is 98.9% total starch of which 79% is resistant. In the case of potato starch, 300g would contain 237g RS.

    If the goal was to get 30g of RS, you could do it with a big, raw potato or 4TBS of potato starch.
    [assuming a TBS weighs 10g and contains 7.9g RS].

    That is the math part based on the table in the study linked, however, in real life, it may work out differently with raw potato. Potatoes contain a wide range of starch, some varieties have more starch than others. Russett potatoes are bred for a higher starch content so they get fluffy when baked. Red potatoes are bred for low starch content to they stay firm when boiled. The starch companies grow specialized starch potatoes that probably aren’t very good to eat, but produce lots of starch.

    When I was trying to get RS from just paleo food, I estimated my intake was 20-30g per day, mostly from raw or cooked&cooled potatoes and dried plantains. When I switched to a known quantity of 4TBS potato starch, or 32g/day, I noticed the difference right away.

    I think with real food, I was probably only getting 5-10g a day looking back. I’ve also been reading that eating real food causes a discrepancy in the RS content based on chewing and the actual RS content of the food.

    I have never tried eating 300g of raw potato, it was mostly like a couple slices, maybe 30-50g. Eating a whole, raw potato would be a way to get your RS for the day, but maybe there is a better way.

  144. tatertot says:

    @Richard – It may end up that 4TBS/day of RPS is overkill. I have kind of set myself up as the expert here, but it is all N=1′s in the end. So far as I know, no one in the world has ever done what we are doing with RPS, ie. continual daily doses of 30g.

    The studies all say that 30-50g is well-tolerated by adults, but most studies are under 1 month. Maybe it’s like do 30g for a month, then cut back to 10g.

    I’m going to stick with 4TBS for another month or so before making any adjustments, but there has to be a minimum effect dose somewhere along the line.

    If anyone is looking to me to know everything there is to know about RS, keep in mind, I’ve told everything I know in this blog–I’m not holding anything back, you guys now know as much as me!

  145. @ilise, regarding your earlier ? on the Larch Arabinogalactan supplements I took, I’m sure there are better values out there as the LA was only a secondary ingredient in them. A quick search on Amazon turned up some reviews you could look at if you are interested in trying it. Potato starch or one of the other RS mentioned here may well be a better value if you are tolerant of them.

    @tatortot and @Richard, I believe you both mentioned more lucid dreaming and/or better moods with the potato starch, and I mentioned an awesome gut calming effect when I tried the LA supplements. I had noticed that before but could not recall the specifics at the time… I now recall that I had tried an SSRI for about a week at the behest of my (ex-)doctor and that’s where I had noticed the same effect on my gut… A google search on “Butyrate and Serotonin” turns up quite a few hits, including this: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18817816. Interesting, no? BTW – When taking the LA I also recall more lucid dreaming and was generally in a fantastic mood, but I attributed it mainly to my gut feeling really good for the first time in a while.

    @tatertot, it looks like we may have the same primary goal – improving blood glucose management. Along w/ potentially modulating serotonin, I think butyrate has had documented some other (positive) upstream effects on gut peptides like GLP-1, GIP and Ghrelin, and those effect insulin and leptin sensitivity yet further upstream. Here’s the article that got me started down that path: http://suppversity.blogspot.com/2013/02/gut-bacteria-modulation-ramp-up-your.html.

    Long story short, 3 1/2 years ago I was diagnosed with type II diabetes and have been able to control it with diet and exercise, but haven’t been able to bring FBG, postprandial glycemic response and the like back down into the normal range. I’ve long thought some form of gut dysbiosis was the primary driver. I’ve tried many probiotic products, _but_ the only products giving my any noticeable positive results have been those that also included a prebiotic.

    I think you are really onto something with all this talk of resistant starch. Thanks for your time on this!

  146. tatertot says:

    @DJ – Very good links! I loved the second one, it’s very well-thought-out and exactly what I have been trying to put into words, but couldn’t…everyone ‘loves them some’ yogurt, but the thought of feeding the yogurt escapes everyone’s attention.

    I have been thinking, too, that all the yogurt (or kefir, or sauerkraut) in the world is a bit worthless if we don’t provide a stable home for the little buggers we are hoping to ingest. This is exactly why I was drawn to Richard’s experiments with kefir and was so glad he took the bait to experiment with potato starch.

    I think we will soon see a resurgence in interest in RS–many will poo-poo it as needless in the paleo diet, others will champion it to sell a product like Hi-Maize, but hopefully the real value doesn’t get lost in the fray.

    My interest in RS really began with everything I was reading about gut health. Every paleo blogger wrote about the trillions and gut microbes and the dangers of leaky gut, but nobody gave any actionable plan other than ‘eat to support a healthy gut’, which meant bonebroth, yogurt and sauerkraut.

    Did you notice in the table in your second link there was no mention of raw potato starch or green banana flour, but there was mention of hi-amylose corn. I think RPS and green banana flour could be a game-changer.

    Thanks for the great comment!

    Pre-biotics don’t support probiotics, it’s the other way around. Probiotics can support and accelerate the desired permanent change the regular consumption of prebiotics will bring about.

    I know the product descriptions on the shiny websites of the snake oil industry will conceal that, but without a consequent and permanent change in your dietary habits, you can as well flush your super-potent 100 billion bacteria per serving probiotic directly down your toilette.

    Even the nicest subtenants can become a real problem, when they come over without being asked day by day. Unfortunately, all sorts of gut bacteria (even the “good” ones) have as imilarly nasty habit of translocating through a leaky gut wall into parts of your body, where you certainly don’t wont them… read about the nasty consequences, here
    Long story short: All the current hoopla about probiotics, the tons of “enriched” products on the shelves of the supermarket, the capped super-*place your favorite strain here* with bazillions of “life-bacteria” in them and for which you would have to spend half your monthly salary, if you wanted to consume enough of them to override the baseline effect your diet, all of them are about as useful as a stimulant based fat burner on a hypercaloric diet.

    You are what you eat, not what your supplement! The same goes for the composition of the bugs in your gut and if you want them to produce short chain fatty acids for you you better make sure they get the raw materials on a consistent basis. That this works like a charm within no more than 6 days is evidenced by the study publication of which triggered this lengthy discussion.

    Whether all the purported health benefits will become visible in the short, long or very long term will yet still have to be elucidated… and that this is probably not going to happen, when you try to get your fermentable starches from bread only (0.25g per slice vs. navy beans 10g per 1/2 cup and even bananas 5g per banana)

  147. tatertot says:

    In the last post above, everything under the line:

    Thanks for the great comment!

    Are cut and pasted from the second link DJ provided, I didn’t format it very well, sorry!

  148. ilise says:

    thanks DJ and Tater for the great info.

    DJ- I have some larch from years back that I can experiment with, but my starch comes today too so may interfere with knowing whats doing what.

    Tater, maybe I missed this somewhere above but have you ran across any studies that shows resistant starch may have the ability to heal leaky gut?

    I have a book written by a David Foster who uses a combo of probiotic implant (from the back end) plus daily intake of sweet whey to encourage the growth and maintenance of the good bacteria that was implanted. He claims in his practice feeding the good bacteria a daily serving of whey was the only way to get enough good bacteria in the gut after it had been depleted.
    http://www.thewholewhey.com/3901.html

    I met a man online who was cured of life long psoriasis after visiting this mans clinic and continuing to take the sweet whey daily. If he stops taking the whey his psoriasis starts to creep back. Supposedly there is a strict diet of no animal protein for weeks after the implant after that just low protein diet needs to be maintained.

    This book really got me thinking how its what we feed our bacteria rather than what bacteria we take that is most important.

    I have done the Webster implant at home quiet a few times but unfortunately its did not “take” but a couple of times and so I assume that I may have other gut issues that need to be cleared before good bacteria will be able to successfully implant. (book mentions infections of bacteria, parasites and fungus can prevent implantation).

    Any way what got me interested in the RS is that after a successful implant my moods would totally change -I felt so calm and carefree; sleep was so much better. The fact that this was mentioned after consuming RS tells me it does work to increase gut health.

  149. John W says:

    @Tatertot
    I’m the one with histimine issues.My Google searches turned up mixed info.However,The worse case scenario seems to be that the nightshade alkaloids are predominately found in the potato leaves,stems,skin,and the green under the skin.So,the starch should have little,if no alkaloids…With that in mind,I took 4 tbls. yesterday,and it had a calming effect on my gut,a little noticeable activity at first,but it quickly calmed down,and no allergy action.I did urinate a lot and consequently appeared leaner(more muscle definition).I felt quite good…So,for me it seems initially that it is a very acceptable addition to my diet and the n=1 experiment continues.

  150. Kayumochi says:

    Worked up from 1 tbs of PS to 4 tbs in a week and when I hit the 4 tbs mark I had major flatulence. Am dropping back down to 3 tbs for a while.

  151. How do your store the potato starch after it is opened?
    Thank you.

  152. tatertot says:

    @Ilise – “Tater, maybe I missed this somewhere above but have you ran across any studies that shows resistant starch may have the ability to heal leaky gut?”

    – I have not come across any studies that say RS is good for leaky gut, but ‘leaky gut’ seems to be a gray area for the CW medical community, they act like it’s not real so I can see why there wouldn’t be any studies on it. However, ALL of the studies point to RS as a major player in gut health and a major contributor to a healthy mucosal gut lining, so that kind of tells me it is good for leaky gut.

    @Tee – I put mine in an empty whey protein container that I keep at work, and at home we have a set of glass storage jars on the counter, the one that says “Flour” on it is now full of potato starch.

    @everyone – If you are trying to figure out a good dose of RS, whether from green banana flour, Hi-Maize, or raw potato starch, consider this: If you are getting more than 10g/day of RS from any source, you are getting double what the average American or European is getting.

    10g/day is 2TBS of Hi-Maize or green banana flour, and 1.5TBS of raw potato starch.

    More than likely your current diet, if you are eating lots of vegetables and some seeds/nuts/legumes, is providing you with 3-5g/day, so an additional 1TBS of an RS is a big improvement.

  153. Thanks tatertot. Is there a difference between potato starch and potato flour?

  154. “Is there a difference between potato starch and potato flour?”

    Sorry, but this pisses me off. ASKED AND ANSWERED.

    If you’re going to take up someone’s time for free, at least have the base courtesy of reading all their previous comments.

  155. I’ve found I have less an issue with flatulence if I break the 4 TBS of RPS into two 2 TBS servings.

  156. On flatulence.

    1. I am resistant to the idea that flatulence is per se anything but natural. In fact, given the flatulence of other animals, I’m open to the idea that not farting at all is a sign of problems (remember, always dump the Neolithic social norms when thinking of this stuff). The fact is that proper gut digestion of fibers gives off gasses.

    2. I have toyed with varying amounts of RPS to where I have little to no farting, and lots. Over a couple of days I note some associations with increased RPS and consequent flatulence:

    a. Massive satiation over very long periods, sometimes into the 16-18 hours before I feel truly hungry.
    b. Diuretic effect. Pee.
    c. Leaning out (a combo of both?)

    I’m curious about what flatulence represents. Obviously, it means fibers are being digested by gut bacteria. But, what are the effects of such digestion? Is it a sign that lots of SCFAs are being created, and this is what’s satiating, diuretic, leaning?

  157. Hey Richard, take a deep breath big fella. I did read the whole article and comments but missed it the first time. The reason I asked was I have a bag of Bob’s potato floor. Now I know it is no good.
    Dig your blog though.

  158. “take a deep breath”

    No. Don’t ask questions of someone in the same comment thread that were asked and answered, especially when they are so giving of their time and attention. Ctrl+F yielded 5 references to potato flour before you typed it in.

    I could give a shit that you didn’t see it. It was there.

    “Oh, jeez, sorry” or thereabouts was the only acceptable response for you and you failed yet again.

    But, yea, how entitlement just rulz now.

  159. “Ctrl+F” Thanks Richard I never knew that existed. I was born before entitlements came about by-the-way.
    And my deepest apologies for being a big dummy as far as computer skills and for asking a question already asked. I hope you can find it in yourself to forgive me.
    Regards for everyone.

  160. Of course, Tee.

    Tell you what. We live in a culture now where everyone gets in face at the slightest suggestion they went off course, whatever, for an instant, where just “ya, cool, sorry” just almost always works (try it, feels good). And by the way, when I do such a thing it’s in the general, because comments get out of hand in this regard. Keep in mind I’ve been doing this a long time and people popping in, reading the post, jumping down, asking a question in comments without checking to see if it’s already been addressed is SOOOOO rampant.

    Little bits of knee jerk humility go very long ways far. It costs nothing important, and makes anyone involved want to help all the more. Tater has devoted many hours of his time to this and It’s my intention to make sure it’s acknowledged and not taken in any way for granted.

  161. tatertot says:

    The gassiness is a sign that things have changed. Yesterday we went out for Mexican food, had lots of beans, corn chips, salsa and a ceviche salad. Normally this would have given me very odoriferous gas, however, a few hours after eating I did get pretty gassy, but they were just airy and light–not noxious. I’ve noticed the same thing after other foods, like kimchi, that used to get me a night in the spare bedroom.

    From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatulence :

    “Normal flatus volume range is around 476 to 1491ml per 24 hours…This variability between individuals is greatly dependent upon diet. Similarly the number of flatus episodes per day is variable, the normal range is given as 8-20 per day…the first flatulence upon waking in the morning is significantly larger than those during the day…”

    Enter M. Smithii (we’ll call him Smitty for short) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methanobrevibacter_smithii

    Smitty is a beneficial gut microbe that eats hydrogen and craps methane. He is one of the microbes targeted by obesity researchers and coveted in fecal transplants, because good ol’ Smitty “affects the specificity and efficiency of bacterial digestion of dietary starch, influencing the person’s calorie harvest and body fat.”

    So maybe we need to value our 8-20 farts every day and hope that Smitty is behind a good number of them.

  162. Joshua says:

    If I could transmit a single six character piece of information to people it would be “Ctrl+F”

    I simply do not understand how people function without it. I would say that at least 1/3 of my productivity advantage* over my coworkers is my usage of “Ctrl+F”.

    *short term advantage. In the long term, they’re probably more productive than I because I obsessively read the internet.

  163. OK. new post on Resistant Starch.

    http://freetheanimal.com/2013/05/resistant-starch-4-letter-word-nope-goal-create-mashed-potatoes-a-diabetic-can-eat-every-day.html

    Please migrate comments on the topic to that new post, and especially reports of results from those of you who’ve given it a shot over the last week.

  164. SteveRN says:

    Well holy shit. I never knew about ctrl+F either. Between that and RS, this one post may have changed the course of my whole life. Thanks Richard and Tatter!

  165. ilise says:

    I believe ctr+f and my GPS are life changers.

  166. Jonathan McRae says:

    I have lost 4 pounds since I have started taking 40 grams of potato starch in the morning, my level of fullness lasts till after I workout at lunch, my energy level holds all day. And I have lost an inch from my waist.

  167. Kayumochi says:

    Very interesting Jonathan. Just goes to show you how little we really know ….

  168. ilise says:

    Jonathan,
    thats great! How long have you been taking the potato starch?

  169. Chupo says:

    “I’m thinking a really good idea would be to make a mix of known RS starches and prebiotics, like potato starch, taro powder, banana flour, inulin, etc… and make a smoothy or mix with milk or yogurt every day. Go heavy on the potato starch or banana flour and a bit of the others.” — tatertot

    Good idea but you might want to add a bit more inulin. I just came across this article about a study saying that the combination of RS and inulin is better than either alone.
    http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Research/Inulin-plus-resistant-starch-could-be-super-prebiotic

    Inulin is very easy to come by. The clear fiber powders are pure inulin.

  170. We have 5 years of data now on our resistant starch. There are many health advantages of resistant starch RS for our digestive health in the future.
    Regards;
    Derek

  171. Meghan says:

    Would baking a sweet potato (cut in slices) with pumpkin pie spice (cinnamon, nutmeg, allspice) then cooling in a the refridgerator and eating 30grams of carbs count as a Resistant Starch?

  172. Resistant starches cause so much gas in my gut that they give me an almost immediate stomach ache (and my girlfriend is the same). Much farting follows. Examples: potatoes (potato salad is deadly), green bananas, refrigerated then reheated pasta (especially if there was a lot of starchy water present), some corn chips and lots of snack foods based on processed rice or wheat starches. I don’t care about the health benefits and I don’t want to lose weight – this stuff hurts me and I would like to avoid it whenever possible!

  173. Bubbles:

    I personally found that RS actually cured that problem after a while. Now I can eat even beans with nothing above normal fartage.

    To each his own. I just decided to plow through it and it worked. In particular, I would mix things up. Sometimes the RS in water, alone, sometimes with some meal, different doses and sometimes, 2-3 days without any and then a total fast now & then.

  174. Spanish Caravan says:

    Alright, so I was on Bob’s RM tapioca starch for about 2 weeks. Toward the end, my BM was getting worse. Not returning to the old fold but they were no longer intact like BC Type 4. So what I did is order some Hi Maize stuff online:

    http://www.kingarthurflour.com/shop/items/hi-maize-fiber-12-oz-

    BM back to BC Type 4 in 2 days. Conclusions: that “finely ground” tapioca flour might not have much RS at all. Hi Maize definitely works. Unfortunately, my eyes started drying out again and the reaction was worse than with PS. This might be cross-reactivity; I never knew I could be reacting to corn. But I usually don’t eat corn anyway because of the GMO scare.

    Anyway, I’ve switched to Barry Farms’ plantain/banana flour, which T says is 55-65% RS.

    http://www.amazon.com/Barry-Farm-Plantain-Flour-lb/dp/B000F9ZM5Y/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1383763185&sr=8-1&keywords=barry+farm%27s+plantain+flour

    No allergic reaction at all. So far my BM and body temperature are holding up. I’ve also ordered another brand in case this one isn’t gluten-free. They say they are but it’s the machinery that processes these banana flour. Btw, are we sure these are from green bananas, if they’re indeed bananas rather than plantains?

    It seems that these RS types do vary in strength considerably. And I concur with someone who reported joint paints: these are probably unpeeled potatoes that they ground. I normally don’t react to potatoes unless I eat the skin. One solution, like someone said, might be an enema; this will all go straight to the colon and large intestine, I reckon. So no allergic reaction from leaky gut, whose locus is the small intestine, right?

  175. tatertot says:

    SpanCar – Good report! I haven’t been impressed with tapioca starch, either. As to green banana starch, I think it’s good stuff, just like dried plantains.

    I think all green banana flour is actually plantain flour. The two terms are used interchangeably around the world, and at any rate, a green ‘dessert’ banana has basically the same RS profile as a plantain. I think in banana growing regions, they wouldn’t use dessert bananas for flour, anyway, as they are probably worth more sold as Dole or whatever yellow sweet bananas. Either way, should be OK. Just buy big, green, ugly plantains and make your own as an alternative.

    I haven’t tried Hi-Maize, but have nothing against it in general.

  176. I currently use a mix of Mt Uncle’s Banana Flour, Bob’s Red Mill Potato Starch, Bob’s Red Mill All Purpose Gluten Free (Garbanzo bean flour, potato starch, tapioca flour, white sorghum flour, fava bean flour), and Baobab Food’s Baobab flour.

    I mix and match depending on what flavour I feel like, but my favourite is always the banana flour.

  177. Have you any views on the fact that Resistant starch can feed and lead to an overgrowth of Klebsiella in the Colon, a bacterium that is linked with Crohn’s and ankylosing Spondylitis?

  178. Ashwin, do you have a list of links to full study papers of in vivo human research, longer than 6 weeks, for the facts you speak of?

  179. The best I can find for Ashwin’s facts is this study here:

    http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf990519i

    Which is then mis-interpreted by this study here:

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10067-006-0391-2

    to come up with a scorched earth recommendation for gut health.

  180. Ashwin/Yien – I think RS would be a huge concern for someone with Ankylosing Spondylitis, but have never seen anything remotely suggesting it could CAUSE AS. To avoid RS for fear of fueling AS is a pretty long stretch. IMO

    Norm Robillard had an interesting view on RS and AS:

    “[NR: As I mentioned, many different types of gut microbes make butyrate from numerous carb sources as well as protein. And many different types of bacteria (good and bad) can ferment RS. Here is one example of a bad bacterium (Klebsiella pneumonia) who’s overgrowth is definitively linked to the autoimmune disease ankylosing spondylitis that specifically ferments RS (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8835506). Reducing RS improves the outcome of the disease. Alan Ebringer has decades of work on Klebsiella, AS and low starch diet. ]

    The abstract was linked: The majority of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients not only possess HLA-B27, but during active phases of the disease have elevated levels of total serum IgA, suggesting that a microbe from the bowel flora is acting across the gut mucosa. Biochemical studies have revealed that Klebsiella bacteria, not only possess 2 molecules carrying sequences resembling HLA-B27 but increased quantities of such microbes are found in fecal samples obtained from AS patients and such patients have Crohn’s like lesions in the ileo-caecal regions of the gut. Furthermore AS patients from 10 different countries have been found to have elevated levels of specific antibodies against Klebsiella bacteria. It has been suggested that these Klebsiella microbes, found in the bowel flora, might be the trigger factors in this disease and therefore reduction in the size of the bowel flora could be of benefit in the treatment of AS patients. Microbes from the bowel flora depend on dietary starch for their growth and therefore a reduction in starch intake might be beneficial in AS patients. A “low starch diet” involving a reduced intake of “bread, potatoes, cakes and pasta” has been devised and tested in healthy control subjects and AS patients. The “low starch diet” leads to a reduction of total serum IgA in both healthy controls as well as patients, and furthermore to a decrease in inflammation and symptoms in the AS patients. The role of a “low starch diet” in the management of AS requires further evaluation.

  181. “Alan Ebringer has decades of work on Klebsiella, AS and low starch diet”

    Thanks Tim, do you know if he had much real success? Have any of his patients followed a high RS diet (40g +), and if so, what were the results?

  182. No idea. That would be nice to find out. I seriously doubt anyone has ever followed a high RS diet before we started this here, though! Wait til you see my American Gut results next week–you will be blown away!

  183. Thank you yien and tatertot. The information you provide does indicate that Resistant starch or indigestible starch/carbohydrates may not be suitable for everybody, especially anyone diagnosed as suffering from AS or Crohn’s Disease. There are “stories” from real people on this website:
    http://www.kickas.org/stories/index.shtml
    It deals mostly with AS.
    An article published in October 2013 provides more information on the Crohn’s connection:
    The Role of Klebsiella in Crohn’s Disease with a Potential for the Use of Antimicrobial Measures
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3810322/

    Personally, I think eliminating a dietary ingredient that encourages the growth of one pathogenic organism and as a result discourages the growth of other possibly beneficial microbes is a backward step. It might be better to look for and include dietary ingredients that may discourage the growth of this one or other pathogenic microbes in the Gut. The use of Certain (not ALL) Plant Polyphenols, particularly Turmeric comes to mind.

  184. Spanish Caravan says:

    Tater, have you gotten your results from the Gut Project yet? Is your result similar to what you’d get from Metametrix’s GI Effects Comprehensive Profile – Stool

    http://www.metametrix.com/test-menu/profiles/gastrointestinal-function/gi-effects-microbial-ecology

    I’m thinking about doing it but wonder if it will overlap with Metametrix which I’ll also be ordering, my naturopath willing, next week.

  185. Spanish Caravan says:

    Yien, you must be DownUnder since Mt. Uncle is only available in Oz. Baobab flour seems interesting. Now, any RS in it? Are you finding garbanzo, fava bean and white sorghum flour to be effective?

  186. sootedninjas says:

    so the green banana MUST be totally green NOT even a hint of yellow / yellow greenish ?

    tried the plantain and it was tasting starchy / crispy. need to try and dehydrate those with a touch of salt as tatertot suggested.

  187. @sootedninjas – The RS is inversely proportional to amount of yellow…it’s all gone when the banana is fully ripe, down from about 20g when fully green. I would guess the disappearance is fairly linear.

    Dried plantains are better eating, IMO, but bananas that have just started to soften aren’t bad.

  188. sootedninjas says:

    so if I’m going to use a dehydrator for the plantain and baker potato (that is the potato with the highest content of RS. Right ?) I better get a dehydrator that has an adjustable temp.

    Do you use a dehydrator ? Any particular brand and model you might recommend ?

    I tried like a 1/4 of a plantain and in 15 minutes it send me to a tailspin to the bathroom. :) I ate it with a smallish shake, 10g Whey Protein Isolate, that I always take in the morning with coffee.

    Should I be taking the RS on an empty stomach or with food ? Does it matter ?

  189. I just slice mine fairly thin, 1/8 – 1/4″, long=ways, not cross-ways, and put on a screen or baking rack kind of thing, put fan blowing on it for quicker results. I don’t have a dehydrator. If you live somewhere hot and sunny, put them outside to dry, if it’s cold, put near heater or heat vent or somewhere warm.

    Just be careful not to heat above 130 or so, too much heat will cook the RS out of them.

    You put a raw plantain into a blended smoothie? That’s a good way, too. I’m surprised that would cause toilet troubles.

  190. Spanish Caravan says:

    Tater, I been going to the bathroom 3 times a day ever since I started eating plantains. But I don’t eat them dry. I microwave them and eat them. I know that will zap the RS out of them. But I reckon I’m getting plenty of RS from my 4 tbsp of plantain flour. Also, gas was excessive in the beginning but now more manageable; perhaps my gut flora has adapted. As for making you regular, I can’t recommend microwaved plantain slices highly enough.

  191. Isn’t there an issue with Green bananas and heart valve problems (presumably from the serotonin in green bananas? )

  192. i was wondering how much potato starch should someone starch with who might have poor gut flora? i am working with my daughter to increase her gut flora after she found out she has gluten issues and dairy issues and that could explain a lot of her stomach issues in general. i have her taking a good probiotic (one that is grown in dirt) and wanted her to start with the RS, but not sure how much she should do.

    thanks

    also, i just wanted to add, that yes diarrhea and vomiting are TOTALLY natural and ok most of the time, having severe constipation and diarrhea is a very very bad mix and can be deadly. if you can’t move out the huge blockage liquid stool with try and get it around it OR you just start vomiting because stuff can’t go out the way it is suppose to. i have seen it a lot as an RN especially with the elderly who can have very poor diets and get little exercise. it is not a good thing to have diarrhea then.

  193. Hi, HeatherMama – I always tell people to start out slow and work up. 1-2tsp is a good starting point, if it is well-tolerated, ie. not too much gas or anything else that seems odd, work your way up on a weekly basis until you are taking 2-4TBS a day.
    Good luck!

  194. Is it true that Elvis Presley died of constipation??!!

  195. You can buy Plantain flour in any West African or Asian supermarket. Look for the name “FUFU” plantain flour. Has to be consumed RAW.
    While on the subject of sourcing ……..you might find Potato Starch in the same shop. Look for FARINA potato starch (NOT FLOUR)
    Anyone interested in obtaining GUM ACACIA will find it in the same shop under the Indian name of “BABOOL GOOND”

  196. Resistant starch + Clostridium Bacteria in the Gut= Short chain Fatty Acids. You might google one particular SCFA……BUTYRIC ACID. This one seems to modulate the composition of the Gut microflora and as a result your immune system by “Envirinmental Epigenetic” mechanisms……as a switch to turn Genes on/off. It’s possible that desirable Bacteria are allowed to thrive while Pathogenic Bacteria are killed of by the production of substances called Defensins in the Gut.
    Latest research here……Fatty acid produced by gut bacteria boosts the immune system
    http://www.riken.jp/en/pr/press/2013/20131114_1/

  197. gabriella kadar says:

    Ashwin, Elvis did have constipation. He died while on the toilet. If he had constipation at that moment, we don’t know.

  198. Thanks Gabriella. Just goes to show that constipation is not “normal” and needs to be addressed to achieve a healthy body.
    I do not agree with the comment made by Richard

    Re:Constipation is an issue I never deal with.

    You know why? Because no animal can store shit indefinitely. Changing what the biota in your intestines have to deal with makes constipation predictable, but it’s always temporary.

    My advice to everyone is, if you’re constipated, double down. Eat twice as much of what you have been eating and show those little fuckers who’s boss,

  199. gabriella kadar says:

    It is very unfortunate but there are people who routinely resort to ‘manual extraction’ to remove hard, compacted feces from their anus. There’s obviously something very wrong going on in those situations. Constipation isn’t just not going every day. It’s having to dig shit out of the butthole almost every day. Why is this so? I have no idea. These are people who do use psyillium, magnesium oxide, etc. without effect. If RPS can contribute to some sort of magic solution, I’m all for it.

  200. “Relax,” Gabriella. :)

    Get it?

  201. @GabKad – I once knew a constipated mathematician who worked it all out with a pencil…

    You have no idea how long I have been waiting to use that one!

  202. gabriella kadar says:

    Tatertot: so happy I gave you the opportunity.

    Richard, that was not autobiographical, thank dog. One of the great pleasures in life is taking a good dump.

  203. Why is this so? I suppose it all to do with what you put in your mouth. Soluble fiber, insoluble fiber and Resistant starch is essential COLON FOOD. RPS is COLON FOOD and has the properties of Soluble Fiber, so it will help make a perfectly formed stool. A perfectly formed stool and the posture adopted during the process of evacuation will treat and prevent constipation. I believe the Squat posture is the best for evacuation without straining.
    My website:
    http://www.emptyingthebowel.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=154&Itemid=75

  204. Spanish Caravan says:

    Gabby, it’s known as digital fecal impaction removal. Impacted feces are fairly common in the VLC community. I personally know (not me) someone who had to go to an emergency room. With a 100% carnivorous diet, you aren’t gonna have much fecal mass. But if you’re constipated to begin with and start taking psyllium husk to restore regularity, it will whack you in the worst way possible because you lack moisture. That lack of moisture is courtesy of a VLC diet that zaps moisture out of your eyes, mouth and digestive tract. Not enough glucose, brain pulls all glucose inside, no mucin, zero moisture.

    Hate to point this out so graphically, but digital removal is the only solution after such people finally realize they’re constipated and resolve to “deal with it” by ingesting large amounts of fiber like psyllium husks or avocadoes. Then, your stool will balloon to the size of a Burmese Python and you’ll never get it out of there. Doing an enema is useless since it’s probably backed up all the way to the small intestine. That’s what you call a low-carb + fiber + zero moisture train wreck. Saw that many times among Atkins dieters, who ended up with the hemorrhoids and other anal scars that they’ll remember dearly for the rest of their lives.

  205. I have a granddaughter by daughter’s second marriage. Granddaugher is on the cusp of menarchy and she can’t control her bowels. She is literally “anal retentive.” For whatever reasons, ten or twelve years ago, she would hold it in. Her body lost the ability to signal her that she needed to head to the outhouse. I’ve stumbled across literature about this, it’s real.

    When she came into my daughter’s life (daughter is an RN) there were interventions about habits per doctors.

    Sadly, this whole scenario has blown up into two families divided and several levels of ignorance (especially my son in law’s ex!) into a mini-catastrophe.

    All because the girl wouldn’t/couldn’t poop when she was little.

    I’ve no problem with the jokes, I’m right there. Just know that sometimes things take place outside of our understanding.

    Life is too strange for mere mortals.

  206. tater, Gabriella, I had a friend some fifty years ago that proclaimed, “A good dump is a highly underrated experience.!

  207. @ Caravan: Don’t know if you know, but we are having huge problems with Burmese Pythons here in South Florida. Changing the ecosystem.

    Maybe we can sprinkle Loperamide over the Everglades…..

  208. Sorry to “hear” your story pzo. Your Grand Daughter might have suffered an anal fissure when she was young. This can often create a fear of going to the toilet as it is a very painful condition. Result is “holding” to delay or not open the bowels. When the bowels do open eventually, a lot of straining is required, especially if using the modern THRONE sitting down WC.Repeated Straining can lead to damage to the Pelvic floor muscles and the nerves around the Anal Sphincters that control continence.
    Constipation is no laughing matter and is not funny, even though fun is often made about the subject by people who assume they are “normal”.
    The constipated person is often suffering in silence and may be quite miserable.
    Some people can be excessively obsessed by the condition and are bothered by if and when the next bowel movement may be accomplished. These are the same people who will blame themselves, are often embarrassed and find it difficult to discuss the problem with anyone.

  209. gabriella kadar says:

    Ashwin! That’s you man? I refered one of my patients to your website a few weeks ago. Glad you have information about hygiene too. I’m continually amazed with how many of my middle age plus women patients have some very serious problems with bowel movements.

    Back when I was a kid, there were squat toilets in Italy, Spain and Portugal. Kind of awkward for someone who’d never used one before but squat and drop makes sense. (Same with the women in labour…)

    Spanish: thanks for the correct words. I couldn’t remember them.

    But there’s menstrual cycle hormonal influence on fecal moisture too. I’d always have problems the week before my period and otherwise I’d be crapping the light fantastic. No dietary change, just a hormonal change. Ended up with an anal fissure when I had to take codeine + pre-menstrual. The term ‘exquisitely painful’ comes to mind. Solved after much effort (doctor’s useless advice included) by serendipitously gorging on Turkish figs. Just by chance and because I really like figs. Suffered for 2 years, driving a manual transmission car sitting on one buttcheek all the way to Newfoundland and back. OUCH.

    That was back in 1995. You can bet your bottom dollar that I eat to shit.

  210. gabriella kadar says:

    pzo: I don’t know your experience with this, but kids living in stressful home situations, parents fighting, parents separated and not getting along tend to hold their poo. The doctors put them on lactulose without ever addressing the actual problem. Plus when kids are being shuffled between homes, who knows what they are being fed by whom. It’s difficult to get acrimonious parents to cooperate for the sake of the kids.

    At least the lactulose appears to help in most situations.

  211. gabriella kadar says:

    beta glucans in mushrooms are great as well. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-glucan

    In re: the Heisenbug poop analyses.

    Lots of cremini mushrooms sautéed with shallots and eaten with semi-baked potatos and 1 tortilla in honour of Richard (I guess you missed me saluting you before I ate it). I’ll be thinking of you and Tatertot in the a.m. YEeeeHaaww.

    I went totally reckless today and bought 6 different types of mushrooms.

  212. When I said “relax,” I meant it, I loath interventions of natural processes. Having been in some of these situations described over the years–as well as things people describe as Panic Attacks and a whole host of things–I always do the same thing. Relax.

    On the lu, that might mean a long time sitting there, such that things come out naturally rather than painfully. In a so-called panic attack, I take a small drink of water, lay down on the couch and think of something very pleasing, breathe deep and slow, and relax.

    Our minds are the most profound double-edged sword ever.

  213. “we are having huge problems with Burmese Pythons here in South Florida”

    Completely silly. All that’s required is for someone to come up with an awesome python dish. I’m thinking a Burmese curry.

    Problem solved. In fact, ever animal you ever come up with a tasty dish for will be both protected and controlled at the same time. Humans are so fucking stupid.

  214. gabriella kadar says:

    Richard, a little lube helps. But I think when someone’s carrying around a Bristol 1….

    There was a mentally disabled guy working at McDonalds who ate only what he got on the job. Got so bunged up, he was taken to the hospital to somehow remove all the impacted shit. Obviously no body followed up on making sure it didn’t happen again. It did. He was too freaked out about the hospital experience, so he died.

    My retired cop told me about a guy who had been sick with a cold or flu. He hadn’t been able to be reached by his employer so the super and the cop entered his apartment. Blood everywhere. The poor guy had been taking codeine for his coughing and ended up with such a bad constipation that he blew open enough blood vessels in his anus that he bled to death. Before he did though, he tried wiping the blood off the walls and such. I guess it was an artery. He was lying dead on a blood soaked bed.

    I think people need to get help, get informed about what they should do but crapping problems is one of those social taboo subjects people don’t talk about. They should because people like us are there to help them.

  215. I get all that Gabriellla. You and Crazy Grace :) are very good at dealing with all outliers at 15 points on either side of the Bell.

    That’s 30 for the both of you.

    My contention is that you see so much of extreme that you–and especially my luv Grace–tends to think everyone is like this. Hell, I have issues now and then but feel really good 90% of the time. Fucking good with a quality wood alarm clock every morning.

    I get it and trust me, I love so much that you give so much or yourself for this, Hot Grace too.

    That said, my focus just has to be primarily on the other 70% because among other things, I’m not even qualified to advise THEM, but I can encourage them to do just what I’ve done, which is to try a lot of shit out.

    Kisses.

  216. sootedninjas says:

    somehow I can’t visualize you blowing kisses.

  217. sootedninjas says:

    maybe flipping birds. :)

  218. … Oh, my. I love blowing kisses…..

  219. sootedninjas says:

    blowing kisses with both hands

  220. Spanish Caravan says:

    Gabriella, I’ve seen it all when it comes to constipation. I fully believe bleeding to death from fecal impaction is possible. I used to work out informally with a group of neighborhood guys at a gym and we all went on a VLC diet when that was in vogue. Needless to say, some of us ended up with constipation when we tried the induction phase. So we tried the conventional fiber and water approach and that jacked up the stool volume, resulting in impacted feces. One had to go to the emergency room, bleeding. He said the nurses were clueless and it finally came out because he bled so much that there was finally enough lubrication. His colon was stone dry because of lack of moisture. I talked about this with my gastro, who’s also the PCP for this guy, and he basically asked me, “What diet did you put him on? He now has an outtie for a sphincter, a lump of tissue that’s irreparably mutillated.” I felt so guilty. But guess what. We all believed in the low-carb gospel then. So we went back to low-carbing and started taking Milk of Magnesia and Brazil nuts and went on a wild goosechase for whatever that would solve constipation. For most, it was irregularity and BC Type 1. But for this guy, it was BC Type 2, which is the most dangerous type there is, since it’s lumpy and dense with edges sharp enough to slice. If your colon is dry to begin with, that thing is going deep into the colon wall with its lumps as hooks. You’ll never get it out of there except perhaps with Jaws of Life and taking out chunks of tissue and, you’re right, nerves in the process. Mutillation indeed.

  221. sootedninjas says:

    what kind of fat macro percentage wise ?

  222. That’s me Gabriella! Thank you for the referral.
    I have been experimenting with Resistant starch, Soluble fiber and Insoluble fiber for a few years now and have tried all manner of plant foods to find the perfect source. My initial interest was to perfect a mix of fibers that would help make “The perfectly formed stool” that would be eliminated without straining when the Squat posture is adopted for evacuation.
    However , this has since extended to include a search for a substrate that will lead to high concentrations of Short chain Fatty acids and particularly Butyric acid in the small and large intestines. I have tried Raw Rice Powder, Raw Pounded Yam, Raw Cassava Powder, Raw Banana and Plantain flour (FUFU) Raw Sweet Potatoes, Corn Starch, Barley flour, all varieties of Beans and lentils and Gum Arabic. I have also tried pure Inulin and Fructo-Oligosaccharide powders.
    I have also boiled down to one important ingredient, Raw Potato Starch (independently, I might add). However, my mix contains small concentrations of Gum Arabic, Inulin, FOS, Pectin, Glucomannan,Barley Malt Extract, L-Glutamine , Wheat Bran and a Polyphenol/Gelatin complex. Potato starch does form the Bulk of the mix though.
    I am delighted to have found “Free the Animal” and to find a community of like minded individuals and research based literature . It has been a lonley journey until now, although I have been recommending a simplified version in juice form in my practice to willing pateints The formula is on my website. It is a liquidized blend of a Raw Potato, Raw Carrot, Raw Beet Root, Apple or Kiwi Fruit with added unpeeled Lemon/Lime, Ginger and Pomegranate Juice. (with optional addition of Barley malt extract, Inulin Powder, FOS, Powdered Flax , Chia seeds, Basil Seeds and Raw Potato starch).
    I think we all agree that Resistant starch and Potato Starch in particular is good Colon food, however it is NOT a prebiotic. This means it has the potential to feed all the microbes that have made a home in your intestines/colon. This situation is not desirable, especially for someone who may be contemplating taking Raw Potato Starch to modulate the Gut Microbiome in a positive direction to treat or prevent a medical condition. If you already suffer from an auto-immune condition where microbes may be a contributory factor, you are bound to be carrying the Bad bugs responsible (Crohn’s, Ankylosing Spondylitis, MS,etc). You do not want these to multiply wildly and make a home in your Gut!!
    I believe that we need to refine the Raw Potato Starch diet and add an ingredient that will modulate the Gut Microbiome in such a manner that desirable microbes are allowed to make a home in the intestines and undesirable pathogenic bugs are discouraged or Eliminated from the Gut. I strongly believe that the source of this ingredient(s) is Herbs and Spices that Human beings have used to flavor foods for hundreds of years. Tannins or Plant Polyphenols are my favourate ingredients. Polyphenols have been found to have selective anti-biotic properties and some have been shown to have a positive modulating effect on the Gut microbiome. I think Plant polyphenols influence health by modulating the composition of the Gut microbiome at concentrations achievable by dietary inclusion rather than the Anti-Oxidant properties that can only be achieved by consuming unrealistic high doses that our ancestors never could have consumed if these agents were used only as flavoring agents in food. Even Red wine does not contain enough Resveratrol to provide the benefit only achievable at really high doses. On the other hand, it does contain small amounts of Polyphenols that may have a beneficial action on the Gut microbiome and health and longevity as a result.
    Turmeric, Ginger, Neem herb, Green Tea Extract, Red Grape Extract, Cinnamon,Cocoa powder, Raspberries, Strawberries, Pomegranate fruit, Amla Powder, Thyme, Ajwain, Rosemary, Basil, Oregano and many more may be beneficial sources of suitable Polyphenols. Some of these actually disable the ability of Pathogenic Bacteria to adhere to the mucosal lining of the GI tract (Neem).
    Bone Broth with added herbs and spices has historically been seen as a healthy food. I think it contains a complex of Polyphenols and Gelatin that is the healthy ingredient. A complex of Tannin or Plant Polyphenols with Gelatin is known to remain intact in the mouth and Stomach due to the acid ph. However, the alkaline ph of the small intestine and Colon allows the Polyphenol and Gelatin complex to break up to release the active principles which will have arrived at the “site of action”. Tannins can be astringent and have a puckering effect on the tongue. Tannins can also bind with Iron and other nutrients (and some Meds) in the Stomach and interfere with absorption. This Targeted delivery is really useful and avoids the side effects. You can easily make a complex of any Polyphenol Herb/Spice by adding the whole spice to Gelatin softened in some Distilled or Wine Vinegar (a source of Acetic Acid) and blending for the “reaction” to take place. You can use the resulting mix or allow the vinegar to evaporate to obtain the powder complex!
    My daily dose of Potato Starch contains small amounts of Gum Arabic(Acacia), Inulin, FOS, Barley malt extract, Pectin,Glucomannan (Konjac), Powdered Flax , Basil seeds and Chia Seeds, Ginger, L-Glutamine powder, and a pinch of the all important Polyphenol/Gelatin Complex!! I can actually “feel” the benefit every morning! Sadly,I have not experienced the vivid dreams some of you have.
    What do you think?

  223. Spanish Caravan says:

    Ashwin, if you want perfect stool, that would be Bristol Chart Type 4. That would be an elongated banana, soft, smooth, no bumps or cracks on the surface a la Type 3 or Type 2. It is so soft that it is formless when it falls to the toilet and makes no splashing sound, even.

    That can be had if you do an enema with 4 tbsp of the RS variety (PS, plantain flour, mung bean starch, Hi Maize corn starch, etc.). You’ll have soft ice cream coming out of your rear end. I was so impressed I thought I became an ice cream machine. Btw, the deepest sleep I ever had was the night of my RS enema. It was 100% REM sleep from beginning to end.

    As for your herb mix, I personally drink bone broth every day with turmeric, basil, oreganos, EVOO, and ACV. I also drink 3 cups of green tea for the polyphenols. I used to take L-Glutamine but I ditched that after reading about it being an excitotoxin. My neuro is vehemently against it and scared me enough to discontinue it.

  224. gabriella kadar says:

    Ashwin, Grace would be better qualified to analyze your comment. She’s a pharmacologist.

    I think the main point of RPS is it is simple and directed towards otherwise healthy people. Everyone has indicated that people with various serious problems may not be best served with using RPS. Plus the thing here is not so much curing constipation but obtaining benefits related to the butyric acid increase from using RPS.

    Grace has mentioned some things as well in regards to gum Arabic and there’s information on PubMed in regards to inulin being the least effective prebiotic.

    I’m hoping she reads you post and can give a comprehensive answer which I’m not able to do in a reasonable time.

  225. MsMcGillicuddy says:

    After reading through several of these posts, I feel fortunate to have been spared many ass or defecation problems.

    One long standing remedy for constipation seems to work better than others – powdered magnesium in water. Will move things in short order, as well, mineral ascorbates in water….no waiting time involved – no impactions I’ve ever heard of.

  226. Spanish Caravan says:

    MsMcGillicuddy, magnesium is a good suggestion for our elderly brethren who often lack peristalsis. That’s why they drink prune juice and stuff. But if you’re dry down there to begin with and your stool is BC T2, that peristalsis will result in friction and bleeding. So the solution is an enema. However, when you’re BC T2 and haven’t had your BM in a while, it won’t be effective, as it will start piling from being backed up. That’s why often digital excavation is necessary. Our graveyard shift nurses don’t get paid enough to do that.

  227. gabriella kadar says:

    Spanish, not being a specialist on the other end of the ‘tube’, what does BC T2 stand for?

    Sounds gruesome. How come it’s the graveyard shift nurses that get the shitty job? Don’t people with impacted stools show up during daylight hours or what? Or is it like people with toothache phoning up on Friday afternoon?

  228. Spanish Caravan says:

    Bristol Chart Type 2, that’s the bumpy, lumpy and dangerous one that will grind its way out of your colon and give you internal hemorrhoids and fissures in the process. Most people who’re severely constipated try all day to get it out. When they realize they can’t and it’s getting late and they are getting sleepy and about to pass out, they finally ask for help. The embarrassment of a digital removal is outweighted by the need to go to sleep and go to work in the morning.

  229. Thxxx Gorgeous Gabriella for pointing me over her…. missed the whole scene.

    Richard,
    Love you too BISOU BISOU!

    Ashwin Patel,
    Luv your website! Is that position good for reading scientific papers also (without falling asleep)??
    I loved what you said “I have also boiled down to one important ingredient, Raw Potato Starch (independently, I might add). However, my mix contains small concentrations of Gum Arabic, Inulin, FOS, Pectin, Glucomannan,Barley Malt Extract, L-Glutamine , Wheat Bran and a Polyphenol/Gelatin complex. ”

    Why have you come to that conclusion? I do love also pectin, PS and glucomannan!

    I do PS because it is mostly 80% resistant starch and though I eat about one kg of whole grains and whole tubers daily for RS-enriched whole food. What do you think of soil based probiotics and eating food that is minimally washed, containing dirt and naturally occurring soil based organisms? Tatertot wrote a guest post on this exact subject:
    http://drbganimalpharm.blogspot.jp/2013/11/how-to-cure-sibo-small-intestinal-bowel_16.html

    Many people are sensitive to gluten because it binds the units in the small intestines which open zonulin and allow intestinal permeability (which leads to C-IBS and other problems). Did you know that most barley malt is gluten-containing? Wheat bran too.

    Did you know that guar gum and other gums may increase the toxicity issues with lectins and permeability?

    Acta Cient Venez. 1992;43(5):312-4.
    Vegetable gums modify lectin hemagglutinability.
    Melito C, Levy-Benshimol A.
    Author information

    Abstract
    Arabic gum enhances lectin hemagglutinability. The more glycosylated the lectin, the greater the stimulatory effect of the gum. Evidence presented suggests that the interaction between gum and lectin is of a carbohydrate-carbohydrate nature.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1343743

  230. gabriella kadar says:

    It’s a fulltime job keeping track of you guys.

  231. @Ashwin: You said -

    “I think we all agree that Resistant starch and Potato Starch in particular is good Colon food, however it is NOT a prebiotic. This means it has the potential to feed all the microbes that have made a home in your intestines/colon. This situation is not desirable, especially for someone who may be contemplating taking Raw Potato Starch to modulate the Gut Microbiome in a positive direction to treat or prevent a medical condition. If you already suffer from an auto-immune condition where microbes may be a contributory factor, you are bound to be carrying the Bad bugs responsible (Crohn’s, Ankylosing Spondylitis, MS,etc). You do not want these to multiply wildly and make a home in your Gut!!”

    Raw Potato Starch is most certainly a prebiotic! Maybe the best one ever ‘invented!’ RPS specifically targets the growth of probiotic microbiota, especially lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.

    For your reading enjoyment:

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/star.201000099/full

    http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd/11655/ (you need to download from here)

    RS is not regarded widely as a prebiotic but (according to the accepted definition) most forms show the requisite features in stimulating specific bacteria, giving raised total SCFA and butyrate levels and a consequent benefit to the host.

    Raw Potato Starch in particular, over corn starch, tapioca, or other every other RS tested against, RPS showed much higher butyrate production and higher stimulation of bifido and lactobacteria.

    In 2007, there were only two prebiotics that fully met the definition: trans galactooligosaccharides (tGOS) and Inulin. Later FOS and lactulose were added.

    tGOS is a manmade substance from cow milk trying to simulate momma’s milk (did you know there are over 200 prebiotic OS’s in bewbie milk?) Inulin may be prebiotic, but unless you but isolated inulin, you are also getting a boat load of FODMAPs.

    While I agree with most of your post, especially about the need for polyphenols, flavonoids, and other antioxidants, you are sadly mistaken about RS, RPS in particular, not being a prebiotic.

  232. gabriella kadar says:

    Ashwin, abstract for using LDN for Crohn’s. (There are GI specialists in Toronto using it on adults)
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23188075

  233. gabriella kadar says:

    Tatertot, the formula manufacturers are now adding Galactooligosaccharides having recognized that a huge percentage of the ‘calories’ in momma milk are not digested by the ‘bewbie’ but by the bacteria in the colon. ‘Bewbies’ need it. :)

  234. What about cooked and cooled green bananas/plantains (as with cooked and cooled potatoes)?

  235. tatertot says:

    Matt – while good, they contain only a fraction of raw. But, cooked, cooked/cooled, cooked/cooled/reheated plantains are an excellent addition to normal eating.

    i haven’t seen extensive studies on cooked and cooled plantains, but what i’ve seen indicates that when raw, they are about 50% RS, when cooked, 1-2%. Just like everything else.

  236. “The highest RS in cooked potatoes is in potato chips and french-fries—foods most paleo eaters wisely avoid because of the oils used.” ~tatortot

    Mr. Tater, after 3 years of the Paleo and Primal lifestyles, you now have me searching for potato chips fried in better oils. Resistance is indeed futile. No worries. I am healthy with no weight issues and I’ve worked too hard to let it all unravel.

    Anyone with a potato chip recommendation in time for the Big Game?

    • Vinnie:

      Here you go. Honest Chips, done in coconut oil.

      http://www.honestchips.com

      Of course, you can always make your own (can get expensive). A wok works nice. Also, you can make oven fries. First use the wok to warm your oil (I use different ones) toss your chips, then on a cookie sheet, about 20 minutes at 400 or so. I like to turn them about halfway through.

  237. Oh yeah, Chips in the oven, baking sheet greased with unrefined coconut oil. Sprinkle with oregano and salt. At which point, they’re health food. Enjoy the game :)

  238. kayumochi says:

    An ancient potato starch-induced Japanese fart battle?

    http://archive.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kosho/chi04/chi04_01029/chi04_01029.html

    Besides being funny as hell, this centuries old Japanese scroll depicting a fart battle has something else: look closely and you will see that food was brought to induce the farting. There is a scene of something being boiled and eaten and another of something being peeled. It looks like potatoes to me ….

    • @kayumochi

      I…it…how…what…who…. Words fail me.

      What is this thing? Is it depicting a martial art that went there? These guys are serious: fart food, fart masks, fart shields, fart calvary, fart tactics, fart blasting, fart technicians (?). Is that a fart induced nuclear winter at the end?

    • kayumochi says:

      @David,

      Not even the pet cat is spared.

  239. GEORGE SQUIRES says:

    Thank you for the helpful info on this site. As a prediabetic for the last 4 years I am trying to get my blood glucose under control so am eating low carbs and recently started with daily potato starch. My question is do I have to take PS daily for the rest of my life, in cycles, alternate days, one dose weekly or what? Can anyone help me?

  240. George Squires says:

    Thank you Gabriella but would you say I’ll need to do that for the rest of my life?

    • gabriella kadar says:

      George, the point of taking potato starch is to provide a quantifiable amount of dietary fibre in order to optimize colonic function and everything resulting from this. Research indicates that we require a certain amount of fibre in our diet which is not adequately addressed by the usual dietary choices most people make. Potato starch provides this without concomitant consumption of huge volumes of foods containing some resistant starch and of course, readily available calories as well.

      Our diets are supposed to contain fibre every day until we die if we want to take advantage of the benefits thereof. Consequently it would make sense to incorporate potato starch (or an equal alternative) for life.

      If you want to take a look sometime at the diet recommended by Dr. David Jenkins (of Glycemic Index fame), google him. He works at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto. The suggested diet is something even his own patients are not able to follow to the letter. It’s more like something you’d feed your goat.

      Potato starch provides a concentrated, low calorie, low volume source of fibre which, based on reports from type 2 diabetics here and on Diabeticwarrior.net can improve insulin sensitivity and normalize blood glucose curves.

      You’ll need to read over some of the information on this blog and Diabeticwarrior.net to fully appreciate and understand the protocol and benefits.

  241. GEORGE SQUIRES says:

    Thank you Gabriella, I figured as much but didn’t see a recommendation we need to take PS for life anywhere (I guess we are just supposed to assume it is permanent) On a low carb diet since August ’13 my fasting and random blood glucose averages were about 95.5 and 135 to 145, respectively pre 18th January when I started PS.

    I will post figures in a few months time as comparison, with the hope that this info may be helpful to others in a similar situation.

    • @GS: I’ll go out on a limb here and say, “No one knows.” “We” didn’t even know about RS until the 1980′s.

      But logically, yes, for the rest of your and my live’s. So what? Cheap, no side effects, works great. I used to be 110-127 FBG, now I’m 80′s and 90′s.

      Another satisfied customer!

      Oh, I take 6 TBL’s once per day. Trying to do it twice is just annoying and difficult.

    • tatertot says:

      My thoughts are that I will be doing something similar the rest of my life. This whole thing may evolve as the science grows, it may turn out a specific combination of RS is better than another or a specific type. We are on the leading edge of long-term human trials here. RS in combo w/probiotics and some targeted testing of gut microbes periodically seems to me a really good idea, but exact recommendations and what to look for/expense are all factors.

      I plan on eating liver periodically for the rest of my life, eating potatoes, beans, and rice, too. Adding in a bit of extra raw starch just seems intuitive to me. If it felt ‘wrong’ I would not be doing it.

      Some things I did that felt wrong and I could NOT see myself doing the rest of my life:

      - keto diet
      - Daily doses of: Resveratrol, green coffee bean extract, zinc, magnesium, vit C, iron, aloe vera, etc..
      - Running every day
      - Sitting in 35 degree water for 30 min/day
      - Getting drunk every day
      - Smoking
      - Eating Fast Food every day
      - Drinking sodas
      - Eating candy and snack food
      - Eating wheat, vegetable oils, and sugars as my main staples

  242. I’ve always been Phlat Phobic. In over 30 years of recreational riding, on both road and mountain bikes, I don’t think I’ve ever had a puncture. Kevlar belts inside the tire, tubes with the extra thick rubber on the bottom, and, of course, tire sealant. Belt, suspenders, and……hands?

    The road bike I had had a nifty little thing that flicked of bits of glass or sand spurs before they could puncture. A simple wire frame attached to the brake bolt, floating over the tire. Pick something up, it gets removed in half a rotation. I bought the set around 1980, and I’ve never run into them again.

  243. What means TMI? I couldn’t figure it out (German is my native language…)

    Thanks!

    • Konrad
      TMI – Too Much Information.
      Will try an explanation.
      Whilst almost all people don’t mind talking shit – or don’t mind being told shit – all the time (ok, ok Richard, doesn’t apply for Freetheanimal as one of the not too many sources around, almost all of the time),
      almost all people shy away from talking about faecal matter most of the time (must be some kind of childhood trauma).
      This, then TMI, being one of the most striking results, it needs covering now and then.
      So if you need to talk about faecal matter, this is possible here, add TMI and keep on talking about the matter. :-)
      Pacem.

    • Konrad:

      You’d have probably figured it out based on context: “too much information,” code for bathroom habits.

    • Thanks Richard. Yes TMI is definitely better :)

      I eat 100% gluten free and mostly paleo plus rice, potaoes and started Potato Starch some weeks ago.

      I use this potato Starch: http://www.amazon.de/Bauckhof-Kartoffelmehl-St%C3%A4rke-Pack-T%C3%BCte/dp/B004RG4PZY/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1392816126&sr=8-1&keywords=kartoffelst%C3%A4rke

      I asked the producer if it is raw potato starch, he replied (google tranlslate to english, not my words):

      “In the production of potato starch, the potatoes are finely crushed, centrifuged, dried and sieved. This also heat is applied.

      During the drying process, temperatures in the range of 30 ° C. ”

      30 °C = 86 fahrenheit. So is this potato starch suitable for it, or heated to much?

      Thanks!

    • 140F is when the granules go pop, like popcorn.

  244. Please fart again, more slowly. :P

  245. According to Ray Peat, potatoes have keto acids in them that easily convert to essential amino acids after ingestion. I’m guessing this is why I didn’t lose muscle on the potato hack and was in ketosis (along with the RS being converted to ketones) .

    In this podcast http://www.blogtalkradio.com/eastwesthealing/2011/08/25/ray-peat-serotonin-and-endotoxin at about 73:10 Ray says:

    “…these are the equivalent carbon framework of the essential amino acids, but they lack the ammonia to make the complete essential amino acid. Potato happens to be very rich in these, probably a lot of fruits are, but they haven’t been analyzed. But we did, we juiced potato and ran it on paper formatograph and saw that it was very rich in all of the equivalents of the essential amino acids. But when you test it chemically, it has a very low amount of protein in the potato. But when you eat it, these keto-acids are changed once they get into your blood stream. Just by absorbing ammonia, they change into the essential amino acids and support protein synthesis.

    So if a person has very low kidney function and can’t get rid of a lot of urea, instead of needing dialysis, if they eat these keto-acids instead of protein, they can recycle their ammonia over and over instead of making it into urea, which needs to be excreted. Potatoes are a very rich source of this protein equivalent such that if you mash two pounds of potatoes, you can think of it as being equivalent to a quart of milk for protein value and it also has a good balance of all the other nutrients. So if you juice it and get rid of the starch, then you have an extremely concentrated, high value nutrient. “

  246. 69-73 Gulf of Tonkin ….Loooong time lurker……Thanks for the Resistant Starch work you do. I am trying t lower my fasting glucose and I am on day four….presently at 109….I’ll keep y’all informed…3-4 TBS unmodified Bob’s Red Mill Potat0 Starch/day

    • Ex nav

      Wow. ’69. The very first new year’s eve I remember is my parents coming back drunk (it was my grandparent’s place just a field away) when it was freshly ’68, so me 29 days away from turning 7. My dad has on a suit, white shirt, skinny tie and he has his hands on my shoulders, looking at me intently, telling me it’s 1968.

      I remember it, but I still don’t really care. :)

Trackbacks

  1. [...] the reference: Prepare for the “Resistant Starch” Assimilation; Resistance is Futile. It started off slow, rather as I'd expected, because: STARCH! (Fingers raised across face in [...]

  2. [...] Everything You Might Want to Know About the Potato – Perfect Health Diet | Perfect Health Diet Prepare for the "Resistant Starch" Assimilation; Resistance is Futile | Free The Animal Resistant Starch: 4-Letter Word? Nope. Goal: Create Mashed Potatoes A Diabetic Can Eat Every Day | [...]

  3. [...] PS. Everything You Might Want to Know About the Potato – Perfect Health Diet | Perfect Health Diet Prepare for the "Resistant Starch" Assimilation; Resistance is Futile | Free The Animal Resistant Starch: 4-Letter Word? Nope. Goal: Create Mashed Potatoes A Diabetic Can Eat Every Day | [...]

  4. [...] it, and will always be doing it. It's a dicey deal to get started with, however. Two posts so far, here & here. I'll be kicking off a couple of posts very soon, so I'll leave discussion for [...]

  5. [...] Prepare for the “Resistant Starch” Assimilation; Resistance is Futile [...]

  6. [...] Free the Animal – Prepare for the “Resistant Starch” Assimilation; Resistance is Futile [...]

  7. [...] Prepare for the “Resistant Starch” Assimilation; Resistance is Futile (180 Comments) [...]

  8. [...] Prepare for the “Resistant Starch” Assimilation; Resistance is Futile (180 Comments) [...]

  9. […] Resistant starch may make the food processing industry the world’s leading producer of bad Borg puns, such as this headline: “Prepare for the ‘Resistant Starch’ Assimiliation — Resistance is Futile.” […]

  10. […] was the very first RS post we did back in April. I am still haunted by the very first comment this post […]

  11. […] Nikoley introduced me to ’resistant starches’ in this post, “Prepare for the Resistant Starch Assimilation” last […]

  12. […] now, but actually just counted them. There's 45 of them since the first one back last April: Prepare for the “Resistant Starch” Assimilation; Resistance is Futile. And it's a long time now since I published some of the best research Tim and I had come up with […]

  13. […] Nikoley of FreeTheAnimal.com for opening up this rabbit hole of potato / resistant starch.  Here is the post that started it all. […]

  14. […] post on resistant starch was over 90 posts ago, April 24, 2013, with a prophetic title: Prepare for the “Resistant Starch” Assimilation; Resistance is Futile [emphasis added]. See, I actually did lots of homework on this with Tim, prior to sticking my […]