Resistant Starch: Now We’re Getting Somewhere

Previous posts on the topic:

The interest over those posts has been rather enthusiastic, in spite of my concern over: "Oh, what new miracle is Richard-The-Traffic-Whore on about now?" And it's a legitimate criticism in my book, especially if not completely familiar with the history around here.

As I wrapped up that post yesterday:

My next post will be about the tons and tons of research into Resistant Starch in the last 30 years that's not financed by someone with a financial interest. I've collected a veritable shitload, thanks to the help of commenter, retired Air Force, Arctic Circle living, lay digger upper of research papers: "tatertot." Following that will be a post cataloging my own results over the last couple of months, as well as that of many others including my T2D mom.

Both tatertot & I firmly agree that resistant starch is an enormous blind spot in Paleo. Go look at what they find in human shit fossils (coprolites). Hint: not a full rack of ribs and a side of salad dressed in olive oil and balsamic.

Oh, "tatertot," is also just Tim. In addition to the other things I cited, he's a hunter, trapper, fisherman, weekend farmer and full-time electrical systems supervisor in a local hospital up there a short hop from the North Pole. He does not work for a starch company. Tim and I've been collaborating for months on this, but he's the one who dug up the research and connected dots. I got people interested and collected a shitload of human guinea pigs so that everyone can see soon enough if we've just been taking the piss.

Before I begin, here's a pretty good primer on the importance of gut bacteria in Mother JonesAre Happy Gut Bacteria Key to Weight Loss? That briefly mentions resistant starch near the end—still a blind spot, in my view, but a great primer. Then there's this, from PrimalmededResistant starch: the missing ingredient? This strikes as a bit cherry picking in reverse, to me, on grounds that the research cited is mostly, or all, from a producer of "Hi-Maze," an engineered corn starch product. A far more balanced piece is by Norm Robillard, PhD microbiologist and former researcher, of Digestive Health InstituteResistant Starch – Friend or Foe? (Interesting how all three citations are questions, eh?) Anyway, Norm's chief concern appears to me to be the potential for RS to aggravate Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO), but in his learned defense, I suspect that's not an indictment of RS per se, but more of having vast numbers of people who've "sawed of the branch they were standing on" by a lifetime of consuming the SAD—which I'm confident he would agree contributes to SIBO. In my next post on the various anecdotes of self-experimentation I've collected, I'll speculate as to why I think it might not be too much of a concern for many.

So here we go. The science, and only the science. Here are the parameters Tim and I have been collaborating under:

Unanswered Questions

  • What is the optimal dose?
  • What is the optimal source?
  • Will it make a difference in the grand scheme of things if implemented on a world-wide basis?
  • Is it contra-indicated for anybody?

Absolutes

  • RS supports a healthy gut microbe population
  • RS exhibits undeniable effect on glucose control and satiety
  • RS in amounts of 20-50g /day are well tolerated
  • RS can come from many sources including real food

The Claims Waiting to Be Generally Proven (hence the need for self-experimentation)

  • RS prevents colon cancer, diabetes, IBS, Crohn's, and Ulcerative Colitis
  • RS improves absorption of vitamins and minerals
  • RS lowers levels of inflammation in gut
  • RS prevents damage done by eating red meat

These are all claims made, some proven in animals. Some have been shown effective in humans, but no long-term studies.

Then there's always the underlying theme: Is it really needed on a paleo diet?

The Research. Skim, Review, or Dig In. As per your own standards.

First, here's why it's easy to get fooled of jaded by the thing. National Starch came up with a business plan to bombard the world with resistant starch in the form of Hi-Maize corn starch. Here's a press release from 2004: National Starch Expands Manufacturing to Boost Production of Hi-Maize(TM) Resistant Starch.

BRIDGEWATER, N.J., June 16 /PRNewswire/ -- National Starch announced that it completed an expansion on June 1 which increased the production capacity for Hi-maize(TM) resistant starch by 33 percent. This is the second expansion this year and provides National with ample capacity to meet increasing customer demand.

Hi-maize is the only natural, granular resistant starch available in the U.S. Within the last year Hi-maize has been formulated into many low-carb foods because of its ease of use, its natural identity and its strong clinical support. ...

In fact, National Starch would love to have you shove Hi-Maize straight up your ass! So, yes, indeed, there is a profit motive here, and engineered unnatural (expensive) product "app for that;" and they would never, ever tell you there's a cheap alternative in the form of Bob's Red Mill Potato Starch that mixes great with all sorts of things and costs pennies per day (and is 80% RS by weight).

NOW the Real Research, and Only the Research

Fortunately, there are lots of papers, studies, abstracts, etc... talking about the the legitimacy of using natural RS for digestive health. Perhaps it's from these studies that National Starch got its ideas. Here's only a partial list of the research, none paid for or affiliated with National Starch.

Resistant starch: the effect on postprandial glycemia, hormonal response, and satiety (human study—abstract). "In conclusion, the replacement of digestible starch with RS resulted in significant reductions in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and in the subjective sensations of satiety."

Digestion and physiological properties of resistant starch in the human large bowel (human study—abstract). "We have concluded that RS2 and RS3 are broken down in the human gut, probably in the colon although in 26% of cases this breakdown was impaired. RS exerts mild laxative properties, predominantly through stimulation of biomass excretion but also through some sparing of NSP breakdown."

Fermentation of dietary starch in humans (human study—abstract). "CONCLUSION: A high-resistant starch diet and its resultant increase in fermentation products may be partly responsible for protecting the black population against colorectal cancers and other large bowel diseases."

Intakes of Carbohydrates and Resistant Starch Food Sources Among Regular Exercisers in Blacksburg, VA and San Jose, Costa Rica (human study—full text). "Consumption of RS prior to prolonged exercise could cause stable glycemic and insulinemic responses that may help delay the onset of fatigue during exercise."

Starch and Fiber Fractions in Selected Food and Feed Ingredients Affect Their Small Intestinal Digestibility and Fermentability and Their Large Bowel Fermentability In Vitro in a Canine Model (dog study—full text). "Potato flour resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) total SCFA production compared with all other flours...also found that potato flour was numerically highest in total SCFA production when comparing six different flours incubated in inoculum containing ileal microorganisms."

Sources and intake of resistant starch in the Chinese diet (human study—full text; tons of charts). "The resistant starch contents of 121 foods were determined using a method that mimicked gastrointestinal conditions. Tubers and legumes had high resistant starch contents. Rough food processing retained large amounts of resistant starch. In general, the content of RS decreased when foods were cooked. Deep fried and roasted foods had higher levels of resistant starch than braised foods. The average resistant starch intake in the Chinese population was estimated to be 14.9 g per day based on a dietary survey. The main resistant starch sources in the Chinese diet were cereal and tuber products. Based on dietary habits, however, the resistant starch intake varies considerably among individuals."

The Second-Meal Effect: A Review (human review study—full text). "Consumption of low glycemic-index (LGI) foods has been shown to attenuate blood glucose response during the postprandial period immediately following a meal. In addition, positive metabolic effects can persist well beyond this period. One of these extended effects, known as the “second-meal effect,” is the positive effect of the bioavailability of glucose on the glucose tolerance of the subsequent meal. This secondmeal effect, initially observed in normal-weight, healthy adult subjects using glucose and  guar, has also been documented in patients with type 2 diabetes. ...However, a growing body of animal data suggests that the effect may also be mediated by SCFA produced from colonic fermentation whereby SCFA attenuate postprandial blood glucose levels of the subsequent meal by inactivating hormone-sensitive lipase in
adipose tissue via the intestinal incretin GLP-1 or via the G-protein receptor GPR43."

An In Vitro Method, Based on Chewing, To Predict Resistant Starch Content in Foods Allows Parallel Determination of Potentially Available Starch and Dietary Fiber (full text). "It is concluded that the procedure described here provides a convenient way to estimate RS content of realistic foods, allowing parallel determination of the potentially available starch fraction and dietary fiber."

Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects (human study—full text). "Conclusions: Glucose tolerance can improve in a single day. Slow absorption and digestion of starch from the breakfast meal, but not the content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast meal, improved glucose tolerance at the second meal (lunch)." Potato starch used in this intervention, and found to be superior.

Resistant Starches Types 2 and 4 Have Differential Effects on the Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in Human Subjects (human study—full). "Our results demonstrate that RS2 and RS4 show functional differences in their effect on human fecal microbiota composition, indicating that the chemical structure of RS determines its accessibility by groups of colonic bacteria. The findings imply that specific bacterial populations could be selectively targeted by well designed functional carbohydrates, but the inter-subject variations in the response to RS indicates that such strategies might benefit from more personalized approaches."

~ Starch (90-page Scientific Presentation; note from North Pole Tim: "The most informative paper on starch and RS in general. A 'must read' for everyone talking about RS.")

Fermentation of Native Wheat, Potato, and Pea Starches, and their Preparations by Bifidobacterium – Changes in Resistant Starch Content (human study—full text). "Bifidobacterium strains selected for this study: B. pseudolongum KSI9, B. animalis KS20a1, and B. breve KN14 used the native starches from three origins and their preparations as a source of carbon and energy for their growth. Generally, the resistant starch fractions from native starches were better substrates and their utilisation was higher compared to the modified starch preparations. A significant decrease in the level of resistant starch was observed in native potato and pea starches and their preparations after 24-h fermentation with the Bifidobacterium strains examined in the experiment. However, the gelatinisation process of native starches and their preparations had negligible influence on the resistant starch metabolism by the selected bifidobacteria."

Assessing prebiotic effects of resistant starch on modulating gut microbiota with an in vivo animal model and an in vitro semi-continuous fermentation mode (animal study—197 pg. doctoral dissertation). "In summary, our studies with both in vivo animal model and in vitro fermentation model supported previous recognition of resistant starch acting as a prebiotic to modulate gut microbiota, especially on Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa. Ruminococcus bromii was specifically induced in rat model fed RS as well as in vitro fermentation model using lean microbiota. Moreover, different RS may have different fermentation outcomes. Our findings provided solid evidence to answer the fundamental question of how RS exerted effects on ix shifting bacterial pattern. In addition, we also showed that the physiological significance of RS might be affected by physical-chemical properties of starch and pre-existing microbiota as well. [...]

"Beyond RS, there are many other questions remaining to be answered, such as how many bacteria species or strains are required and sufficient to attain beneficial effects? Will it be possible to targeting specific bacteria species to introduce or deplete it in humans? Whether bacterial pattern can be sustained after dietary intervention stops? Are there other metabolites of gut microbiota playing a crucial but undiscovered role to improve human health? Other more practical concerns are what food products and appropriate dose is needed to be included in the diet without comprising individual food preference and habits but obtain equivalent beneficial effects?"

Tatertot Tim comments: "Clearly, to me, the answer to all of these question lies in the use of resistant starch to achieve the level of manipulation needed. I think for the average Joe, just getting some RS in your diet, whether from food--which is hard, or supplementing with potato starch--cheap and easy--is the best you can do to give your guts the best chance they have at creating what they need to thrive.

"Also, this study shows me that RS is clearly not 'just fiber' as so many people love to say. If it were 'just fiber' would so many studies be performed, so many thesis papers written, and so much time and money be devoted to study it?"

~~~

I actually have substantially many more. I had about 6 more entries done, such as are above, drafted & formatted below. They're part of a Part 2 draft, now, but I just had to cut this shorter for now, always wishing to strike the balance about things.

So this ought be where RS related discussion in comments moves, from back there at 438 90%-awesome-comments-so-far...flamewar free. Yea! A 438-comment thread at Free the Animal without any flamage.

...How boring, eh!?

Keep this in mind. The idea for my fundamental motivation behind all of this is simple: if 10% of us ought to eat right, then it might be good to understand what the other 90% of us ought to eat. Get it?

I'll be back very soon, even if you see something else pop at at the top in the interim.

Comments

  1. tatetot says:

    Good job, Richard — This is why you make the big bucks! Hopefully none of those linked studies can be traced back to National Starch, Ingredion, or Penford Starch. It’s amazing how many papers and studies those guys put out in the last few years–I’m almost afraid they will ruin it. National Starch is famous for it’s inventions of Mazola, High Fructose Corn Syrup, and a few other really crappy products.

    To illustrate, here is a really nicely put together paper on the RS intake of Americans: http://www.valemaisalimentos.com.br/material/2.pdf It’s a great research paper, tons of citations, and probably 100% accurate. But then I see in the very last paragraph “Funding for this research was provided by National Starch & Chemical Company”

    The main researchers were: M. M. Murphy and J. S. Douglass are nutrition science managers, ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, VA. A. Birkett is a business scientist, Nutrition
    Research Department, National Starch Food Innovation, Bridgewater, NJ

    Does their involvement invalidate the whole paper? I can see their angle is to show that we don’t get enough RS in our diet. Lucky for everyone, they make a product, Hi-Maize, that we can put into every loaf of bread and box of cereal! Problem solved.

    I almost dropped the whole RS thing when I realized that almost all of the studies I was looking at were put out by a starch mogul. Digging deeper, and looking back further made me see there was much more to this than meets the eye. Maybe Hi-Maize will save the world from itself, but at least we have alternatives: real, paleo foods and plain old potato starch.

  2. After 6 weeks of my personal experiment with PS, I’m sticking with it. The two glaring features that I notice are vastly improved digestion (it was pretty good to begin with) & incredible long-term satiety. Skipping lunch is now the rule, not the exception. Thanks Richard & Tim… Keep this thing going. There is definitely something to this stuff!

  3. On week three of 3 TBS of Potato Starch per evening. Any explanation on the exceptional, uninterrupted deep sleep? No complaints mind you. Have never slept so well. Never.

  4. TR

    I speculate that ought to be the norm, adding confidence to the suspicion that RS is deficient in American diets and Paleo is even worse than SAD in that respect, because there is RS is grain products.

  5. tatertot says:

    regarding this entry above: Fermentation of dietary starch in humans (human study—abstract). “CONCLUSION: A high-resistant starch diet and its resultant increase in fermentation products may be partly responsible for protecting the black population against colorectal cancers and other large bowel diseases.”

    I have the full text somewhere, but the gist is that blacks living in rural conditions in S.Africa rarely get diabetes or colon disease. When they move into an urban setting, they get it at the same rate as others living there. The key seems to be the RS found in their ‘stale maize porridge’. These folks cook up some cheap corn meal once a day and eat it cold all day long.

    Several papers have dissected this dish and noted the health benefits of stale maize porridge.

    http://researchspace.csir.co.za/dspace/bitstream/10204/1508/3/van%20der%20merwe_2001.pdf
    “Using the close correlation between in vitro starch digestibility and GI, a predicted GI of 44 (ranging from 39 to 50, glucose reference) was calculated for maize porridge. The low predicted GI suggests that maize porridge may be useful in the prevention and dietary treatment of diabetes. ”

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-4549.2008.00323.x/abstract
    “South African maize meal porridge (pap) was analyzed for its nutritional properties after reheating by microwave following room-temperature storage for 12 and 24 h. In comparison with freshly prepared samples, reheated samples showed a higher resistant starch content with values of 44.2 ± 8.1 g/100 g and 39.8 ± 9.4 g/100 g when reheated after 12 and 24 h, respectively, compared with 31.4 ± 7.9 g/100 g for a fresh pap. A lower (P < 0.05) total protein content was recorded after the room storage-and-reheating cycle with values of 11.76 ± 2.4 g/100 g for fresh pap and 8.96 ± 1.57 and 7.56 ± 1.78 for pap reheated at 12 and 24 h, respectively. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) was also improved (P < 0.05). These results, especially the improvement of resistant starch content and the IVPD during room storage-and-reheating cycle of South African maize meal porridge, may open new perspectives to maize consumers both from the socioeconomical and nutritional point of view."

    Basically the recipe is just corn meal cooked in boiling water and left to cool at room temp.

  6. tatertot says:

    re: This entry from above: ~ Intakes of Carbohydrates and Resistant Starch Food Sources Among Regular Exercisers in Blacksburg, VA and San Jose, Costa Rica (human study—full text). “Consumption of RS prior to prolonged exercise could cause stable glycemic and insulinemic responses that may help delay the onset of fatigue during exercise.”

    If anyone reads this, keep this stuff in mind – http://www.generationucan.com/super.html

    Once again, my point is proven. Someone wants to sell you a very expensive supplement that has all of the properties of dirt cheap potato starch.

  7. @tatertot, what a scam! A sixer of that crap costs more per unit than a lb. of PS.

  8. Ok, in for the 4 pk of Bob’s Red Mill.

  9. Hey folks,

    I just started adding PS in my diet. I was eating potatoes and rice (sometimes cold) but adding PS in a quick shake is so much more efficient :) So yesterday evening, after my single daily meal, I got some coconut milk (from Aroy-D … really good stuff), some vanilla and raw cacao powder, xylitol for sweetening and 2 Tbsp of PS. I also took some this morning (usually I have no breakfast at all) … I start to feel quite gassy … I warned my wife that my belly would probably rumble quite a lot … and it did, indeed!

    Surprisingly, she had been reading about the very same topic independently and joined me in the experiment … it was quite a concerto in our bed …

    I will let you know how it evolves. My goal is not so much weight loss and such (I am lean and don’t need to drop more weight) but sleep improvements.

  10. Matthew says:

    Richard, don’t know if you addressed this or not. Does cooking the potato starch render it useless?

    I’m thinking reductions, and general use as a thickening agent?

  11. I am currently in the “skimming” group of reading the source material. I am wondering how similar the rural S.A. corn porridge is to grits, something that I grew up with but mostly avoid since starting paleo. I recall from an earlier post that they might need to cool off to be RS. I think the Bob’s looks easiest, and I am drawn to the idea of sleeping better. My own sleep is okay, but doesn’t last more than six hours usually. Thanks for trailblazing this stuff.

  12. Jens:

    I’ll address fartage in the next post. Briefly, what I’ve found is that it’s highly variable and depends a lot on what other foods one has eaten, frequency, dose, etc. It could very be that some doses are overload for one time. Also, I’ve found that going 2-3 days now & then and also plain fasting now & then greatly tends to stabilize things. These are things people have to hack out for themselves.

  13. Joshua says:

    Matthew, from the April 14 post: “The RS found in raw potatoes swells and bursts as temperatures approach 160 degrees F, turning the RS into rapidly digestible starch.” Presumably the same would happen to the powdered stuff.

  14. Matthew, yes, cooking bursts the starch granules and they become rapidly digesting. If you cool them, you get a small portion back as retrograde RS, but not much. The potato starch is the starch component from raw potatoes and is nearly 80% RS by weight.

  15. tatertot says:

    Potato Starch can’t be heated above 150 degrees or so. Once it begins thickening (gelling) all the RS value is gone. It needs to be mixed with cold/cool/warm water to be effective as RS. If you see a gel form–it’s too late. However, if you need a good thickening agent–potato starch works exceptionally well!

    I was raised on corn grits, too, but always eaten hot. Cooked and cooled, and reheated and cooled, is the way to increase the RS content. This makes me think corn tortillas should be pretty high in RS. Foods cooked at high heat or fried seem to retain their RS. So corn tortillas heated over a flame should be a great source–or even quickly fried in a bit of fat. I don’t think I’ve ever seen a study of the RS in corn tortillas–I’ll do some searching.

    @Jens – We just bought an ice cream maker and have been making ice cream with almost the same recipe as your smoothie! Xylitol is also a good prebiotic. I always try to get the kind made from Birch. Xylitol on it’s own makes a lot of people gassy as it’s a sugar alcohol and a FODMAP (polyol). Erythritol is also a pretty good sugar alcohol sweeter, but is not a good prebiotic.

  16. tatertot says:

    Seek and ye shall find! What a difference a few search terms make…just found this, but didn’t have time to read carefully. Looks like a combination of beans and corn tortillas is a pretty decent source of RS:

    http://biblioteca.cinvestav.mx/indicadores/texto_completo/cinvestav/2005/117842_1.pdf

    and another: http://biblioteca.cinvestav.mx/indicadores/texto_completo/cinvestav/2002/61373_2.pdf

    And this compares blue to white tortillas–white has more RS. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jsfa.3008/abstract

  17. An Ice Cream Machine in the Sub-Artic.

  18. tatertot says:
  19. Dan Linehan says:

    I don’t seem to have any issues with the potato starch, mixes easily into smoothies. On one of these threads someone recommended including some inulin with it as well, that version pretty much gave everyone in my household a stomach ache.

  20. Richard..how long do you fast to stabilize things? thx

  21. RN said:
    “I’ll address fartage in the next post.”

    According to Google, this sentence is brand-new to humanity. :-)

  22. Dan Linehan says:
  23. ilise: as per my usual intermittent fasting. I try to go at least 24 hours with zero calories once per week. Sometimes more, sometimes less.

    Other than that, I went camping over Memorial Day weekend and Friday-Monday had no PS. I found that the time off really regulated things and I seemed better adapted once I added it back in.

  24. Carl:

    You’re assuming that I wasn’t going to be addressing the waxing of cross-country skis.

  25. I’ve ordered some Bob’s Red mill potato starch to try this out but it’s pretty expensive in the UK, so I’m also thinking about raw potatoes.
    From what I’ve found, eating raw potatoes is bad if they are sprouting or green and that the alkaloids tend to be concentrated in the skin, so that implies that a non-green, non-sprouting peeled potato would be fine.
    Is that reasonably accurate before I start munching on the raw spuds?
    Is there anything to be gained by lacto-ermenting potatoes?
    Thanks in advance.

  26. I am ending my experiment with potato starch.
    I didn’t experience the vivid dreams or reduced appetite that some are reporting.
    I didn’t experience the gas or bloating either.
    Only thing I noticed was the change in urine color.
    Glad it is helping some, just not a big enough change for me to continue.

  27. Lee – re: raw potatoes – I discovered just how much starch there is in raw potatoes and how “starchy” it is when I tried the method for shredding potatoes for hash browns in a Vitamix. You chop up potatoes into 1 inch cubes; put them in the blender jug, add enough water to cover the potatoes and blend. Just one second at high speed is enough for a hash browns consistency, but I guess if you are instead trying to extract the starch your should go longer. Then empty the jug through a colander over the largest bowl you have. Over the course of maybe 15-30 minutes the starch – or at least quite a lot of it will settle at the bottom of the bowl. You will be surprised. It is pure white – like the powder – and it is very, very thick and starchy. Drain off the excess water and you will be left with just the white stuff and I guess you could either dry that or consume it as is. No idea how much one medium size spud yields – you’d have to experiment. Also – I have no idea if regular, less powerful blenders can do this. It may just take longer blending time.

  28. here’s a page of YouTube search results for potato starch extraction: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=starch+from+potatoes&oq=starch+from+potatoes&gs_l=youtube.3..0i5.31627.36650.0.37780.20.20.0.0.0.0.113.1354.19j1.20.0…0.0…1ac.1.11.youtube.z7lv55WSUnM

  29. Kayumochi says:

    If Richard had not mentioned his vivid dreams I doubt anyone would have reported any b/c when one has the intention of remembering dreams he usually does. We all dream vividly every night of our lives no matter what eat but most of us just can’t recall it upon awakening.

  30. Thanks Mart but I quite like eating raw potatoes whole; I just don’t want to poison myself (if that’s possible)

  31. TJ the Grouch says:

    I was very hopeful at the beginning. I am diabetic and on an average of about 30 gm of carbs / day. That and Metformin keep my BS in line. The addition of the potato starch (cold into some kind of beverage) jacked my BS by about 15-20, especially in the mornings. I quit after about two weeks and the BS dropped to my “normal” stage after three days. I had no other effects or side effects.
    Richard, keep up the good work, maybe somebody will benefit from this. Thank you Tatertot, you are hard at work on this, we appreciate it!

  32. Woodwose says:

    I have done this for 7 weeks now and will continue to use it as a supplement. The main benefit i see from the RS is improved gut health. I have IBS type D and RS really help against diarhea. It feels like the gut is alot more “robust” when eating RS and a robust gut will always result in improved well being, especially for those with IBS.

  33. Dan Linehan says:

    @TJ,

    What brand / type of potato starch were you using? This is the first time I’ve heard of it raising blood sugar..

  34. Yes, I think that’s the first report we’ve seen in comments. My T2D mom has had hers coming down since ramping up to 4T per day.

  35. Richard,
    great references by tatertot and you to the real science behind this, from the start of this series and earlier in tatertot’s comments. Thank you.
    Reading the science ‘for ourselves’ has become indispensable, which was also just brought to the foreground in a much broader sense for ‘paleo’ by Robb Wolf et al : http://robbwolf.com/2013/06/22/paleo-fantasy-time-reading-research/

  36. Have been doing this for about a week now. 2T in am and 2 T after dinner

    Sleep may be better. That is a big issue for me , and I need more time to really know because it is still somewhat inconsistent

    Blood sugar has not improved at all. Fasting is around 107 . When I get my new supply of test strips will do more post meal testing, Dang! I really wanted those lower numbers. But I had slacked off on my exercise so am am getting back into a better routine. maybe the combination will help.

    Satiation may be slightly better than it already was on PHD

    TMI is very good. Had been eating some cold potatoes and cold rice for a while, which may account for not having the toots at the beginning…maybe just one or two innocuous ones. Had been taking the prebiotic Biotagen for chronic C. This works better, it seems. Though I may add some of the Biotagen back in a few weeks since that may complement this

    I do seem to be remembering more of my dreams than in the past, when I did not remember a thing most nights.

  37. Richard if Mom is a T2D and a bit overweight I’d like you to consider this thought: Scientist hold their current beliefs about obesity and T2D because of how they are trained to think. They are not bad people. They just are not aware someone else is doing their thinking for them. In the objective scheme of science, the need for first person accounts of diseases never arise; this implies obesity from carbohydrates just never exists in their worldview. But we all know as obese people, that this belief can not be correct because it does not match the reality that we live. Our observations and experiences tell us otherwise. The post here you alluding to another possibility that reward theory can not explain. Science needs skeptics but it also needs observation. We must cultivate a culture of intense curiosity when we face a paradox. An unusual observation can not be dismissed too fast. For example, when bariatric surgeons rearrange a human gut who has diabetes and obesity with a gastric bypass operation the patient is CURED of diabetes in the recovery room. In fact, you may not know this, we surgeons do not even bother to put them back on their diabetes meds nor do we put then on a diabetic diabetic diet. We do not even monitor their blood sugars because 5o yrs of surgical observations show it doe snot matter. Their gut bacteria are the same in the recovery room. So, how is it that this observation has been ignored by obesity and T2D researchers? It might be because it does not fit their theory. These observations are a known surgical and medical fact. You would think this would get people to realize the reward theory of obesity is ludicrous at some level because of this observation. If simply rearranging your gut can totally cure T2D and allow you to lose “some weight” , there is no way the reward of food is the primordial etiology in obesity. Observations should stimulate our curiosity to destroy thinking that keeps a wrong theory grounded as some real reality to a medical condition. Why is change hard for scientists? I believe it is because they have forgotten the effects of observations on science. Observations create momentum in scientific theory. They should force a change of direction from where our beliefs lie today. Our dogma is tied to our thinking because of the “gravity” of our beliefs. We must use momentum to break free of the “gravity of our current scientific thoughts” if they are not serving our needs and do not explain the observations of patients or clinicians. We must get moving first to attain our goals to overcome the inertia or procrastination within science. We all want to break these “orbits”, and float like a ‘moon’ gone wild in space, while running the risk of disintegration of our current beliefs. We all want to take our lives and health in our own hands and hurl them out among the stars. That is when we allow our imagination to run free in the fields of curiosity we were created with. This is what observations are designed to do for science. Today’s science divorces itself from this.

    Momentum represents movement towards the change. A current theory is like a monument made to a ‘old fact’. A monument represents movement in the past. Today, obesity research has lost all momentum and has become a monument to thinking. The proof is found in our country. 40% are now obese using a calories in and calories out paradigm with increased movement.

    Food for thought for your mom…………

  38. Hay Jack:

    Actually, I am aware of the phenomena of GB surgery ameliorating or curing T2D. I think it’s about how GBS affects the gut. This is science reference 22 of my follow-up post.

    http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/april2013/04152013bypass.htm

    Thanks always for paying attention still.

  39. So, after a few days of a few Tbsp RS in the evening, here are my observations:
    – flatulence had increased at the beginning but seems to abate some
    – sleep has been better the last 2 nights without nay particular change of lifestyle
    – dreams are vivid, I remember them much more

    Regarding blood sugar levels, insulin sensitivity and so on, I have no clue because I am not measuring anything. I am only interested in better sleep and a healthy gut. I am 5’9”, slim and lean, 145lbs. I have no weight to lose at all at the moment. I am actually building up a bit of muscle mass. I also eat one single big meal a day because it seems right to me, I am not hungry most of the day regardless of activities. Hunger kicks in at around 5pm and I eat between 6pm and 8pm, high quality foods (primal style usually) without any care for macros. I had been VLC for a few months to shed some bad weight (I dropped about 28lbs in 6 months) but it never was my plan to maintain ketosis. With summer coming, I was eagerly welcoming carbs back in my diet. I just wanted to be lean first. Looks like carbs (tubers and fruits) added some leanness to my body actually :D

    Now, just to make sure I am doing things right: I live in Denmark where I buy something called “kartoffel mel”, which literally translates into “potato flour”. But the label says: “pure starch” and the nutritional breakdown is: 80g starch, 20g water. Nothing else. So I believe we are talking about the same thing. It is a thin white powder that smells nothing and tastes bland. My coconut milk shake does not taste potatoes when I add 3Tbsp of PS into it so it is the right thing, right ? I also complement the shake with another prebiotic which is xylitol (I like this stuff and had been using it here and there for a few months). According to Phinney and Volek, 50% of the ingested xylitol makes it to the colon and is fermented by those little bugs that craps butyrate. I also increased my consumption of konjac root noodles, which adds nothing to my nutrition but to that of my colon I suppose.

    If I am doing something weird, let me know because I don’t want to realize in a few months that I had been eating weird shit and just fooled myself :D :D

  40. Scott Miller says:

    Richard,

    >>>there’s a cheap alternative in the form of Bob’s Red Mill Potato Starch that mixes great with all sorts of things and costs pennies per day (and is 80% RS by weight).<<<

    This product sounds like a no-brainer, but when I googled to confirm the 80% before pressing Amazon's One-Click buy button, I found this very recent link, which seems to be saying that the resistant starch content of potatoes is considerably lower, < 5% (vs 80%). So I want to double check with you on this.

    http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-04/fi-rsc042513.php

    BTW, I've been using a Hi-Maize resistant starch product for several months. But of course it's way more expensive that the potato powder you linked to.

  41. Scott:

    You’re talking about cooked tats, which destroys (bursts) the granules. There is retrograde RS if you let them cool, but not much. Bob’s is totally RS, starch extracted without appreciable heat. Tatertot has verified this and plus, just the results themselves. This is very different stuff.

    You can do an experiment yourself to verify, and it takes less than 2 minutes:

    http://freetheanimal.com/2013/06/resistant-starch-now-we%E2%80%99re-getting-somewhere-part-2-35-links-to-research.html#comment-530597

  42. Scott Miller says:

    Gotcha. Thanks for clarifying. Buying now…

    Great series, btw.

  43. leo delaplante says:

    after 3 days of inquiring i finally got an answer,,i have been buying potato startch from the BULKBARN ,,there is almost 200 franchises of this store in canada,,,the rs they sell comes from germany and it is rolled pressed with heat (120 degree celcius (240f)) OUCH,,,so i guess i have been supplementing with glue for the past month,,at least i now know and will source some bob mill’s from now on,,,wonder how much retrograded startch is left in the stuff,,,,my poops seemed alot more healthier but i guess that was just the placebo effect…………………….leo

  44. Kayumochi says:

    Why do people say it was ” just the placebo effect” as if it were inconsequential? If you had cancer and it went into remission and someone said that to you, what would you think?

  45. tatertot says:

    @kayumochi – This is so funny. I just finished reading this article: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2012/09/gut-feeling.aspx and thought–I wonder if that’s how the placebo effect works, then you post this…

    From the article:

    “Recognizing that communication between the brain and the gut is bidirectional also points toward new ways of treating both the physical symptoms of intestinal disease and the psychological disorders that are so often present. Keeping anxiety and depression under control, Bercik suggests, may improve inflammation in the gut; and treating inflammation in the gut may improve mood by altering brain biochemistry.

    But before clinicians can capitalize on gut bacteria to treat either physiological or psychological disorders, a great deal more research is needed. Despite intense interest in how beneficial gut bacteria might promote psychological well-being, few studies have probed such effects in human subjects. In one such study, published in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2011, researchers found that a 30-day course of probiotic bacteria (a mix of Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacteria longum) led to decreased anxiety and depression in healthy human volunteers.”

  46. leo delaplante says:

    the placebo effect comment was just a joke,,i thought it was funny,,didnt want to offend anybody…

  47. Kayumochi says:

    no offense taken leo :)

    From what I have seen and experienced many people cut themselves off from healing with that very phrase. It is as if they are saying “my healing can’t be real because it is only the placebo effect so let me continue to be sick” and so they continue be sick often with tragic consequences.

  48. “It is as if they are saying ‘my healing can’t be real because it is only the placebo effect so let me continue to be sick’ and so they continue be sick often with tragic consequences.”

    Ha ha ha. You’re so transparently Eastern, Kayumochi! :)

    I approve.

  49. Jens from DK says:

    @leo

    I just read this from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starch_production#Potato_starch_production

    “Dewatering of refined starch milk is carried out in two stages. In the first stage the excess water is removed by means of a rotary vacuum filter. Secondly moist starch is dried, without starch pasting. For this purpose a pneumatic dryier is used. In this device moist starch (with water content 36 – 40%) is floating in strong and hot (160°C) air flow and then dried during 2 – 3 seconds. Then, the starch is separated from hot air in cyclons. Due to short time of high temperature drying and intensive water evaporation from the starch granules, it’s surface is heated only to 40°C.”

    So I don’t think you only ate “glue” :)

  50. Kayumochi says:

    Maybe so Richard but would your rather be right or dead?

  51. Kayumochi says:

    Rather, I should have said, would you rather be right and dead or wrong and alive?

  52. leo delaplante says:

    i ordered 8 bags of bob;s red mill ps,,not taking a chance with bulk ps anymore,,i add 2-3 tbsp of buckwheat in my morning smoothie which is also fairly high in rs,,so it might be hard to tell if the bulk ps was un- modified..not taking a chance ..ill go with the garanteed real stuff

  53. Somewhat off topic question for low carbers or paleo who have included cooked potatoes into their diet, have you found that it increased weight gain any? (not potato starch..cooked potatoes)

  54. JensDK says:

    @ilise
    Yes, added cooked potatoes and no, no weight gain :)

  55. Thanks Jen..how much cooked potatoes can you eat per day? (red, sweet, or regular?)

  56. Great article and research Richard and Tim. You are right. My main concern is that resistant starch looks a lot like fiber to gut microbes and may exacerbate dysbiosis and SIBO for people with GERD, IBS and other related conditions. There was likely a time when our vastly diverse gut microbiomes were highly adaptable to dietary changes over time. High fiber eater’s guts looked a lot different from meat eaters. Perhaps both were healthy. In modern times it must be hard for our gut microbiome to keep up with what we throw at them. One thing seems clear: We have trouble staying healthy on the SAD. Could the lack of gut microbe diversity due to the prevalent use of broad spectrum antibiotics, excessive hygiene, or even our crazy diet choices contribute to the problem? Who knows (l wouldn’t be surprised), but I look forward to checking back to hear from people experimenting with resistant starch and hopefully not having too many GI symptoms.

  57. JensDK says:

    @ilise
    I don’t eat potatoes every day because that’s just too boring. But you have to keep in mind that I eat only one meal a day (early evening) so I do not care about macro partitioning. Someimes I go like near 0 carb, sometimes, I have a big plate of rice cooked in bone broth and have some nice fried fish with it. It really depends on what’s in my fridge and what I feel like eating when I come back from work. Oh yeah, and sometimes, I make some creamy stuff in my blender with unsalted mac nuts, chocolate sweetened with xylitol (good prebiotic as well), vanilla, coconut milk, a couple of eggs and if I have it, some pastured double cream. That’s a caloric bomb which I enjoy as dessert or as a whole meal :) Does not happen often though … I used to add PS in it but I found lately that PS is best taken in water only a bit before going to bed. But back to your question: maybe twice a week do I eat potatoes, rather white ones than sweet ones. My preferred way is oven baked “French fries” coated with a little melted duck fat and paprika powder prior to baking. I eat the left-over French fries cold after one night in the fridge (my wife does not like that very much but I do). Not much RS in it but still a little more after 24h in the fridge.

  58. Kayumochi says:

    @JensDK

    Glad to see someone else who eats only one meal a day. Realized long ago the gains one can make by doing without whether it be food or anything else. I see my colleagues frantic at lunch time saying “I’ve got to get some food,” while I sit calmly, grateful I do not have to get some food.

  59. ilise says:

    Thanks Jen for the details. I would love to be able to eat only one meal per day and that is what I would prefer if I could get away with it. Unfortunately Ive discovered low carb is the cause of my extreme insomnia which is why Im looking for a carb other than fruit (teeth become weak and sensitive) and grains.

    Anyone heard of a solution to low carb insomnia?

  60. JensDK says:

    @ilise
    Use xylitol daily for your teeth, it tastes good, is a good prebiotic and is terrific for dental health!

  61. JensDK says:

    @Kayumochi
    Agree. Same here at work. Some co-workers told me that the absence of plate in front of me disturbed them. I replied (invariably) that the mountain of food in front of them disturbed me … I don’t get comments any longer :)

  62. JensDK says:

    Last night, I had a very vivid dream, so vivid I experienced it as real events but it really was just a dream. I could project myself out of my body and fly around, go through walls and ceiling, etc. And I had a quite precise sense of time passing, which usually is very vague in the way I experience dreams. The PS stuff is da shit!!

  63. I wanted to read a little more on starch and resistent starch, starting with the 90 page pdf on Starch that Tim recommends everyone talking about RS should read:

    ~ Starch (90-page Scientific Presentation; note from North Pole Tim: “The most informative paper on starch and RS in general. A ‘must read’ for everyone talking about RS.”)

    Problem is: the link is broken! And I can’t seem to find it online myself. Can you repair the link or send me the pdf? Thank you!

  64. @Sietske – Sorry about that. That’s the trouble with links, they disappear. I have the full report on pdf, it is really, really good. If you email me at akman2014(at)live.com, I’ll send it to you. I will also send it to Richard, maybe he can insert it above somehow.

  65. Spanish Caravan says:

    Hi JensDK, how many tablespoons of PS did you take to have that vivid dreaming? I never experienced that with PS. But then I’m part allergic and after a week on it developed some nightshade reactions. But someone here suggested that an enema might work better. And guess what, yes, you can bypass nightshade reaction with an enema, since you’re bypassing the small intestine. I took 4 tbsp of PS last night.

    Wow, some of you guys should try that! I’m serious. It was like … well, I don’t know if you guys have ever taken a strong probiotic like Natren. It felt exactly like that. There was something going on down there that I can only describe as a bunch of bacteria playing ultimate frisbee! There were constant turnovers, you can tell there is a battle going on! I had an incredible sleep (but no vivid dreaming, however). I mean, I did not wake up even once. I was sound asleep from the beginning to the end and it was such the most sweet and tranquil sleep I ever had in a long time!

    Anyone have nightshade type of reaction with PS, there is another way. You won’t have that type of reaction the other way. I’ve only tried it once but I can’t wait to do it again tonight!

  66. @SpanCaravan – You are truly breaking new ground! Keep us posted. Other than the obvious aversions, I see nothing wrong with what you are doing.

  67. Spanish..curious but what is your sleep like normally without starch enema? Are you doing a retention enema with low water? thanks!

  68. Spanish Caravan says:

    Thank you, Tatertot, for the suggestion. I was hesitant at first. But this way, I can have BR PS without the usual allergic reaction. And you know what I’m thinking? Even at 4tbsps, I don’t think it’s going all the way down there.

    Ilise, I’m a very light sleeper. I get disturbed by the sound of rain, traffic noise, etc. I fall asleep but my REM sleep is disturbed constantly by the going on at night. This one was like: I mean I can’t remember a thing that happened at night. It’s like I have an amnesia.

    No, I just mixed 4 tbsp of PS in water, shook virogorously, then threw out the saline solution in a 4.5 fl oz Fleet enema bottle and replaced it. Use a funnel. Make sure to go to the bathroom beforehand. Then I laid down and made sure I wasn’t going to expel it. After about an hour, I knew I wouldn’t, even with all the turmoil inside my lower gut! Wow, there was a high-scoring, baceterial Super Bowl taking place, with many touchdowns! So then I went to sleep. I know it stayed in there the whole time I slept. And I haven’t gone to the bathroom yet. Don’t need to. But I feel great!

  69. Spanish Caravan says:

    Actually, I just had a BM and I have this to report: it was most incredible BM I ever had. All that pandemonium inside my lower gut sparked by last night’s enema reulsted in the softest, silky smooth stool I ever seen in my life. I mean, my constipation was fixed by RS about 1.5 months ago. And it’s been Bristol Chart Type 4 since. But this one was still yet different: all one pice and not a ridge or any kind of edge you can make out on its sufrace, which was as smooth and soft like an hard boiled egg. I reached for the tissue but nothing would wipe.

    I’m telling ya, Scott Tissue will go bankrupt if we all start taking RS! I was so amazed I took a dozen pictures to remember this for eons (if anyone wants a pic, let me know!) This sets a new standard as far as BM is concerned. I think this will cure the most intractable constipation issue in no time! Yes, there is Bristol Chart 4, but this one is like Bristol Chart 4 off the chart!

  70. I think Im going to give this a try since I get bloated from taking RS orally. So glad you mentioned it.

  71. Spanish Caravan,
    Are you planning to do the PS enema everyday? Although I don’t believe I have nightshade allergy as I eat eggplants, potatoes, tomatoes etc without any issues, I am having some issues with 3-4 tbs PS. My fingers and knuckles are a little painful- especially when its cold and when press them in a shake hand.

    For now I have cut back to 1 T + 1T of psyllium husk. I will slowly up my PS dosage every couple of weeks. The best RS for me is green bananas but it is so hard to find them.

    The enema method seems like a good idea but I just don’t like the hassle of doing it.

  72. Spanish Caravan says:

    No, not everyday, Natural! But I’m convinced that the 2 strongest RS are PS and mung bean starch. Unfortunatley, I seem to be having allergic/nightshade reaction to both. So I’ve been using tapioca starch and plantain/banana starch. But I just don’t think they’re that effective. Plus I don’t think even at 4 tbsps, the RS is traveling all the way down to the colon.

    So this is the “sandwich strategy,” so to speak. I highly recommend it but I’ve only been at it less than 24 hours. I plan on doing it again today, just to make up for what I might have missed out. But I’m thinking about it maybe twice a week on an ongoing basis, if all goes well. Yes, I think it’s very helfpul. You’ll never forget it once you do it, because you can feel the effect immediately. That’s why I think the mouth to gut route never took it down that far; I’m positive that my colon has been exposed to the RS just yesterday the other way.

  73. I speculate that another approach would be to fast near 12 hours, eliminate, and do 4T in water on an empty stomach and then don’t eat anything for a a while, like another 6 hours.

    The enema thing may be more beneficial, however, it sorta undercuts the idea of food and more importantly, the idea of “RESISTANT.”

  74. Spanish Caravan says:

    Exactly, Richard. If, as Tatertot says, the beneficial bacteria are all in the large intestine and near the colon, why take a chance and pass the RS through the small intestine? Especially when you have leaky gut and nightshade reactions? The most direct route is from the anus-to-colon route, excuse the terminology.

    Plus we have Norman’s assiduous warning that RS could worsen SIBO and GERD; well, if that’s true, then why not just bypass the small intestine? No SIBO, no GERD. No nightshade reactions as leaky gut happens in the small intestine. I’m glad I didn’t throw out my PS and MS. I felt that I could never take them.

    But there was another way, after all. The light bulb turned on in my head and I said, “Eureka!”

  75. Norman, Spanish – is there any evidence (read science) that 20g RS daily is bad (as opposed to beneficial) for SIBO , IBS etc ? Interested to see it if there is. I can’t find any.

  76. Spanish Caravan,
    please keep us posted with your results. Especially curious to hear if the turmoil down in your colon will settle down after a few times of PS enemas.

  77. Spanish Caravan says:

    Yien, I have no idea if exceeding 20g of RS daily is bad. I’d imagine anything can be bad in excess. Normy is the one who mentioned that it could worsen SIBO. And he may be taking his cues from Mike Ede who’s pointing out that PS could induce tumorigenesis in rat studies. If you have time, why don’t you examine this paper. It’s quite dated (1996) and I’m sure there is better data on RS and its effect on tumorigenesis for colon cancer:

    http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(96)00082-0/abstract?referrer=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8566598

    Abstract: Rats on the potato starch diet had tumors more frequently and had larger tumors than rats consuming the wheat bran or basic diets. Parallel effects on the density of ACF were found 6 weeks after the carcinogen. Although epithelial proliferation was significantly enhanced by potato starch compared with the basic diet, the addition of wheat bran did not suppress this enhancement. Conclusions: This type-2 RS enhances epithelial proliferation, ACF density, and tumor formation. The addition of wheat bran to an RS-diet suppresses tumorigenesis, acting on events responsible for the formation of ACF but not the
    events controlling the hyperproliferative phase.

    • What works the best in trials for ACF is discussed in this super illuminating review study (not RS)

      “…By combining six carcinogenesis endpoints from tables 1 and and2,2, this review suggests that the most potent agents are PEG 8000, a protease inhibitor, DFMO alone or with piroxicam or aspirin, hesperidin, celecoxib, sulindac sulfone or sulfide, and Bifidobacteria strains.”

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2536533/?report=printable

      But if you take an integrative approach to consider improving gut dysbiosis and reduce ACF — the combo of C butyricum + RS — may be a good start.

      Microbiol Immunol. 2003;47(12):951-8.
      Effects of high amylose maize starch and Clostridium butyricum on metabolism in colonic microbiota and formation of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon.
      Nakanishi S1, Kataoka K, Kuwahara T, Ohnishi Y.
      Author information
      Abstract
      High amylose maize starch (HAS) is not digested in the small intestine and most of it reaches the large intestine. In the large intestine, HAS is fermented by intestinal bacteria, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), particularly butyrate. Clostridium butyricum can utilize HAS and produce butyrate and acetate. It has been proposed that butyrate inhibits carcinogenesis in the colon. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of HAS and C. butyricum strain MIYAIRI588 (CBM588) on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in rats. In the group of rats administered only CBM588 spores, the concentration of butyrate in the cecum increased, but there was no decrease in the number of ACF. In the group of rats fed an HAS diet, a decrease in the number of ACF was observed, and in the group of rats administered HAS and CBM588, the number of ACF decreased significantly. In these two groups, the concentrations of acetate and propionate in intestinal contents significantly increased, but the concentration of butyrate did not change. It was found that the beta-glucuronidase activity level of colonic contents decreased significantly in the two groups of rats fed HAS. This study showed that HAS and CBM588 changed the metabolism of colonic microbiota and decreased the level of beta-glucuronidase activity, phenomena that may play a role in the inhibition of ACF formation in the rat colon.

  78. @Spanish – I really don’t think that study was from Dr. Eades. Surely he knows how to spell his own last name and wouldn’t stoop to flaming us.

    You know how sugar fuels tumor growth, right? It’s pretty well proven, I suspect it may be similar with colon cancer and RS. But to live your life as if you had colon cancer and avoid all RS is a s dumb as staying ketogenic to ward off cancer.

    If someone HAS colon cancer, all bets are off on efficacy of RS. But to maintain a healthy gut and prevent colon cancer, RS in mandatory.

  79. sootedninjas says:

    great article and will try PS.

    BTW, @ vitacost.com Red Mill Unmodified Potato Starch is like $2.90. so like the 4 pack is under $12

    http://www.vitacost.com/bobs-red-mill-all-natural-potato-starch-unmodified-gluten-free-24-oz

  80. Norm Robillard says:

    Spanish, You forgot to mention one thing. Check out the material and methods:

    “Rats were fed the diets for 31 weeks throughout the initiation and after the initiation (i.e., after 1,2-dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride [DMH]) stages because the stage at which diets would exert their action was uncertain.”
    and:
    “Rats were injected subcutaneously with 20 mg/g body w of DMH (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) once a week for 10 weeks beginning 1 week after starting the diet.”

    From Wiki:
    1,2-Dimethylhydrazine, or symmetrical dimethylhydrazine, is one of the two isomers of dimethylhydrazine. It is a potent carcinogen that acts as a DNA alkylating agent. It is used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals

    Here’s what the paper is about: They wanted to see if RS protected against tumor formation in this model. It didn’t, but that in no way implies that RS causes tumors in rats.

  81. Spanish Caravan says:

    Norm, you mean they were deliberately encouraging tumorigenesis? That was the referenced study from the primary document, “Potato and high-amylose maize starches are not equivalent producers of butyrate for the colonic mucosa,” Martin et al, 2000. There was no indication that RS was being used for prevention the way Martin described it:

    Results from previous studies indicate that some starches are protective against tumour development (Thorup et al. 1995; Caderni et al. 1996; Kristiansen et al. 1996; Perrin et al. 2000) whereas other starches fail to protect and may enhance tumourigenesis (Calvert et al. 1989; Sakamoto et al. 1996; Young et al. 1996).

    In fact, he says:

    Many studies have attempted to demonstrate the beneficial role of RS in the prevention of colonic cancers
    by stimulating digestive fermentation, especially butyrate production (Bingham, 1990). Nevertheless, Young et al. (1996) demonstrated that rats fed a diet containing 20 % PoS had larger and more frequent tumours than rats consuming a basic diet or the same diet enriched with wheat bran.

    You mean Martin misrepresented the study? I’d think so since he never said RS was being tested for prevention after deliberately administrating a potent oncogenic agent. I got a little worried after reading the passage and skipped my PS enema last weekend. So does this mean it’s A OK with PS? Or perhaps the best bang for the buck is mixing PS, mungbean starch, Hi-Maize corn starch, and plantain starch in an enema bag? As you know, I can’t take PS (nor MB nor HMCS) orally due to nightshade allergies.

    • HoldingTheFaith says:

      Hi there Spanish Caravan! Yo soy español, por cierto! I wanted to ask you if the sleep benefits of RS enemas have continued to shine in this period.

  82. @sootedninjas Thanks! I just ordered 8 of them, way cheaper than Amazon.

  83. Spanish, the main guy is Graeme Young. Looking at his recent papers, seems like he is on board?

    http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/2/246

  84. These are the most recent (past 18 months) and relevant I can find, for Graeme Young.

    http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/1/197.short

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10620-013-2844-1

  85. Norm Robillard says:

    Spanish,
    From the original paper you cited: “The aim of this study was to examine the effect of raw potato starch alone and in combination with wheat bran on tumor development and precancer events in a rat model of colorectal cancer.” They go on to use 1,2-dimethylhydrazine to induce the tumors.

    Here is a paper describing the tumorogenic rat model using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine:

    http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/8/1571.

    Hope that helps.

  86. I’ve been reading nearly all the RS articles, and I’m so fascinated by it all! I’m going to need to start my own experiment with potato starch & other food sources of RS. When I worked in the clinical field, we used to give banana flakes to some patients with diarrhea – curious if it’s due to any of the starch if from green bananas. It worked sometimes but not always.

  87. Forgive me if this has already been mentioned somewhere but does anyone know what the RS content is for rolled oats that have been cooled after being cooked in addition to green bananas that have been boiled then cooled?

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