Dr. Art Ayers Now Calling Resistant Starch a Panacea, But Why?

The post, with a link to here, is: Resistant Starch, Panacea, but Why?

Dr. Art, biochemist, is one of those guys (much like Petro "Hyperlipid") who's all about the science, all the time, no exceptions. We are fortunate these sorts of single-pupose guys exist; for if not, we'd be in dire need of inventing them...

To wit:

I am definitely not a bandwagon kind of guy (except maybe in the case of fecal transplants.) So embracing evil, high-glycemic starch as a medicinal godsend was tough. As a biochemist raised on structural analysis of carbohydrates, the idea of starch as a mixture of linear amylose and branched amylopectin, was straightforward. Amylase in saliva and pancreatic solutions digests the linear alpha,1-4, glucan stretches and pullulanase (bacterial) degrades the alpha,1-6, glucan branch points. But this suggests that starch should be digested before it gets to the colon and most of the gut flora. This ignores the spirals of amylose that resist amylase digestion, i.e. resistant starch (RS), and that lead to the puzzling role of RS as a special food for gut flora and a health panacea.

I'll (I'll speak for Tim, too, since he's basking in the sun on The Big Island, presently, and is under order to enjoy it) take a recognition by a guy like Art or Petro for 10 recognitions of anyone else, because I consider them somewhat foundational. I know they are led by their accounting of the science, are able to understand it all, chew it up, and spit it out to us on occasion.

I can't even hope to completely understand why Art has been persuaded by the science, but I'll take it anyway.

Why is resistant starch, RS, difficult to digest and terrific for gut flora?

There are several conceptual difficulties to understanding why RS is Real Special:

  • Polysaccharides are not all simple linear chains of sugars, e.g. they branch (amylopectin) or form helices (RS, amylose).
  • Sugars and polysaccharides have hydrophobic patches. They are amphipathic like soap.
  • Amylose (RS) forms a spiral with a hydrophobic surface of each sugar facing inward to make a hydrophobic core and hydrophobic patches on the outer surface that structures water to hold the spirals together. The same principle holds together the double helices of DNA around a central hydrophobic core of stacked base pairs.
  • Polysaccharides (soluble fiber) are made of many different sugars, e.g. glucans, mannans, xylans, galacturonans, etc.
  • Starch is enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose, which most gut flora can ferment. Other sugars from other polysaccharides (e.g. pectin, polygalacturonan) must first be converted to glucose for fermentation.
  • Soluble fiber polysaccharides made from multiple sugars, e.g. arabinogalactans or xyloglucans, require multiple bacterial enzymes for digestion by gut flora.
  • Several hundred bacterial enzymes of the gut flora are required to digest the complex soluble fibers of food plants in a typical diet. Resistant starch requires two.
  • Food intolerances (also mistakenly called food allergies) result from missing bacteria and their enzymes to fully digest soluble fibers.
  • Novel soluble fibers or sugars are used as laxatives, and they lose their loosening impact as your gut flora adapts to digest the new fiber. Normal, softened stools are half bacteria.
  • Amylose spirals are used as a storage form of glucose in seeds, potatoes, roots, etc., because enzymes can’t attack their glycosidic bonds to hydrolyze the starch into amylodextrins and glucose.
  • Bacteria digest amylose by attaching the spirals to their cell walls and using wall-bound enzymes to tear the amylose apart. It's like the different requirements of a wood chipper (pancreatic amylase) versus a man with a chain saw (bacterial amylase).
  • The spirals of RS melt during cooking and become susceptible to gut amylase. Melted amylose can sometimes slowly reform enzyme-resistant spirals, RS, when chilled. Al dente or chilled pasta has more RS and raises blood sugar less than soft pasta.

Poor Richard. Poor Animal. There's more. Any biochemists out there care to do a layman's translation? I got that it's cool. :)

Comments

  1. sootedninjas says:

    don’t know if you are fan of Matt “The Kraken” LaLonde but would be interested in his insights too. And knowing that he is a close “friend” of Robb Wolf I’m quite sure Robb would have talk to him about it for now. Maybe he is doing n=1 himself.

  2. I have read Dr. Ayers for a while now and don’t claim I understand what he is saying. He does usually sum up at the end what he has said in his posts. He is one of these folks who believe that inulin is better than resistant starch for one’s gut, he has an anti inflammatory diet on his website that he recommends. He also highly touted Dr. Eades’s six week cure for the middle aged middle which leaned heavily on drinking shakes for meals. I don’t drink shakes for meals. If I have to buy specialty items to make stuff save the $3 bag of potato starch, then I drop it. He also doesn’t believe in dairy probiotics such as kefir. He claims they pass through the gut. I was skeptical of sugary yogurt claiming to be a probiotic as well basically for the amount of sugar and other stuff in it. He does think that dairy like kefir can be used to help correct a gut that’s pretty bad, but beyond that, dairy is useless to him. For me, look at the results here, look at the French and Italians! These are dairy heavy societies and they don’t have problems. Also, didn’t NPR recently do a piece on whole fat dairy is much better for a person than lesser fat dairy? And they cannot explain why? I think Petro and Dr. Ayers have a place but there are some scientists who just won’t see the forest for the trees.

    • Cathy:

      I never found anything remarkable from fermented dairy either. SBOs, whole other story.

      Have patience. Everyone in learning, still, including Dr. Art. What’s cool is that he’s applying his immense knowledge to some truc. (you’ll need to consult the French/English for that, maybe.)

    • I did get very good results from home-grown kefir a couple of years ago, but my gut was in bad shape at the time after antibiotic treatment for what they said was an ulcer. It was also a very powerful strain of kefir from what I could tell, very prolific.

    • Richard – But you do drink kefir, yes? When you say nothing remarkable, do you mean as far as helping the gut?

      I don’t seem to have any difficulty digesting 24 hour cultured yogurt (a la Specific Carbohydrate Diet) and kefir, but I’m still in a place where some days I feel I tolerate it well, and some days I don’t. I’m still losing weight, so not sure it’s an issue for me insulin-wise, but I find about an hour after I eat it, my mood is improved and I have more energy. My BS readings don’t show much, and I’m never eating more than 8 oz at a time, but I just have suspicions. About a month ago I started making my own raw-milk 24 hour yogurt and noticed immediate (within days) improvement to my stool, my mood, and overall feelings of well-being. I’ve heard a lot of others say similar, even to the point of Crohn’s and UC patients on SCD saying they noticed immediate positive healing from the yogurt that they never experienced from taking Biokult for months. Some comments were that they really started to heal in earnest after starting the yogurt. I have mental reservations about dairy, but I’m trying to just listen to my body, particularly my gut. Even Dr. Grace says to avoid dairy, but sauerkraut alone is a lonely way to go…

      So the dilemma for me is, do I heal my gut and ignore the possible insulin effects, or eat for my IR and maybe take a lot longer for gut health?

    • Hi Cathy –

      I started reading Dr.Ayers’ blog recently and he’s not totally against dairy. I got the impression that he eats moderate amounts of dairy like goat cream and some other forms. I think his stance is too not over-consume due to the difficulty of our microbes adapting to the whey content or something along those lines.

      I think he’s ambivalent of it given that the research is still premature on it, although kefir, sans fecal transplant, is the best probiotic infusion one can get.

    • Ann

      I keep a quart of an organic kefir I get from WF, and usually a quart of some sort of juice. Takes me 10 days-week to get through both (I mix them, with the PS or other RS sometimes). So, it’s not really liking drinking it, as I used to. Few oz per day max, and not every day.

  3. LeonRover says:

    Pauvre Animal: La pauvreté de Riche!

    Doc Ayer’s central point is that spiral-structured poly-sacchs (RS) are not ensymatically decomposed in the human stomach but by two bacterial species in the gut.

    Art recently had a wonderful piece on PhytoChems and another on Browning Arteries.

    He is superbly hypobolical and rarely argumentative. Here is a nice example of his style.

    “Suspecting that eaten GMO DNA is going to have an impact, because plant DNA can be detected by extraordinarily sensitive systems that can detect single molecules, is a thousand times sillier than fearing addiction from handling dollar bills that test positive for cocaine. Nobody worries about cocaine that is actually present on all currency and cocaine is a very toxic natural plant product.”

    Like Bradley Hall – and unlike modern Arvard epidemiologists – he requires a verified mechanism to account for health and a lack of that same mechanism to account for ill-health.

    Sláinte Mhaith (Good Health).

    Vagabond Lion

    PS Matt Lalonde is a good young ‘un.

  4. Hi Richard

    In a previous comment for another post it seemed like you were not particularly impressed with Dr Ayers.

    I am glad that you have changed your mind but it would be interesting to understand why you had doubts in the past.

    Many thanks,
    Viktor

    • Dont’ recall the comment, but if I said I was not impressed, that would be my bad. Because, even if he said something I knew to not be true, or at least still an open question, I ought to have restrained myself better.

      Lesson learned, as I learned with Petro long ago.

  5. Thanks Richard!

    That’s actually the best explanation I’ve seen so far for what is happening.

  6. sootedninjas says:

    listen to this podcast of Mark Sisson being interviewed @ around 20 minute
    http://www.notjustpaleo.com/mark

    His emphasis about gut biome as the “next exploration” to better health. But prolly somewhat influenced on the huge thread on MDA forum on resistant starch.

  7. The Natural says:

    “Amylose (RS) forms a spiral with a hydrophobic surface of each sugar facing inward to make a hydrophobic core and hydrophobic patches on the outer surface that structures water to hold the spirals together. The same principle holds together the double helices of DNA around a central hydrophobic core of stacked base pairs.”

    This fact was already posted on FTA by our very own Dr. BG a few months ago.

    What I am learning new from Dr. Myers post is-
    “Several hundred bacterial enzymes of the gut flora are required to digest the complex soluble fibers of food plants in a typical diet. Resistant starch requires two.”

    Only two strains of bacterial stains required to digest RS. Wonder what these two specific strains are. Also wonder if those people who are not seeing any positive results or even getting negative results are completely depleted of these two required strains.

    T-Nat

    • http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/v6/n8/full/ismej20124a.html

      “Ruminococcus bromii is a keystone species for the degradation of resistant starch in the human colon…”

      Rather dense article.

    • I’d like to point out that the quote you posted says “Resistant starch requires two”. In this case, I think the “two” refers to enzymes, and not to strains of bacteria. I believe one of the enzymes is amylase – can’t think of the other. Anyway, I suspect this means RS (amylose) can likely be more rapidly converted to beneficial SCFAs like butyrate than can fiber because many bacteria produce those two enzymes while it takes a large variety of bacteria to produce the myriad of enzymes required to break down fiber.

  8. @T-Nat – yes, I also noticed that a lot of what was in the article, was a succint scientific summary of many of the observations that have been posted on FTA before.

    In fact rather than requiring a laypersons definition, I think this is an excellent scientific translation of much of what has been posted. Reading “Sugars and polysaccharides have hydrophobic patches. They are amphipathic like soap.” reminded me of Richard’s post saying RS acted like detergent for bad bacts. :)

  9. Here’s another interesting post with some interesting citations. (Lifted from comments on Cooling Inflammation post above.)

    http://eatingoffthefoodgrid.blogspot.com/2013/10/resistant-starch-and-sibo.html

  10. Can I get my resistant starch from eating peeled, uncooked potatoes? How much potato would I need to eat?

    • The Natural says:

      Yes, you could get your RDI of RS from 1 lb of raw potato.

      But be careful of solanaine poisoning. It has been mentioned here before. If your throat starts burning, stop eating it immediately…that’s solanaine.

      T-Nat

    • The Natural says:

      Cap, that reply was for you and I meant RDA not RDI.

    • According to cronometer, a pound of raw potato has 70 grams of starch almost all of which should be RS. I thought the RDA was 30 grams or have I missed something?

    • Chupo- you are probably more right than I because I was pulling my number from memory.
      So, 1/2 lb potato to meet RDA based your cronometer :-)

  11. The Natural says:

    OK. Here’s the answer to my above questions…just read Dr. Ayer’s full post-

    “The bacteria that digest RS, for example, are Clostridia (see EM right, note bacterium dissolving its way into the grain of RS), the type of gut flora that also stimulates Tregs and prevents autoimmunity. Thus, the beneficial impact of dietary RS results from feeding gut flora. Most people already support gut flora that can utilize RS, so most people benefit from RS in their diet. Some people have severely damaged gut flora, dysbiosis and constipation, and they may need to eat live, fermented foods (not just dairy probiotics) to recruit enough new bacteria to benefit from RS. ”

    The name Clostridia/Clostridium sounds familiar, doesn’t it?
    Now, who is practically in love with these little bugs? You guessed it- Dr. BG :-)

    T-Nat

  12. The Natural says:

    Here’s more from his comments sections. I kind of remember this being talked here at FTA before.
    Does anyone here confirm the link between Clostredia – Tregs – reduced immunological aggression and cancer tolerance? ANy thoughts on this point.

    Dr. Ayers:
    “Thanks for the background on RS and cancer.
    I wouldn’t expect RS to reduce cancer. It seems to foster the growth of Clostridia, which I associate with enhancing Tregs. That also means butyrate production and lowered inflammation, which should reduce cancer, but the Tregs suggest to me reduced immunological aggression and cancer tolerance.”

  13. doogiehowsermd says:
    • gabriella kadar says:

      Well, doogie, it ain’t exactly baby poo. It’s just the bacteria.

      Organic Pasture Raised Probiotic Chorizo. LOL!

  14. Ricardo. I finally got my Potato Starch. (Long story). You suggested how I use it in many posts back, but I’ll just ask you again so I don’t have to search. Morning? (I think you said) 1 tbsp to start? I’m ready for Guinea Pig time. Would you be so kind as to remind me? Thanks in advance.

    • Go here.

      freetheanimal.com/2013/12/resistant-primer-newbies.html

      But searching isn’t that hard, is it?

    • Kate:

      Now, that would typically get you slammed, an offer to buy you a coffee next morning when I regret my actions.

      OK, so first, you take 1 cup of potato starch, mix it in as much water as you need, drink and stir, drink and stir, etc.

      Immediately after, you eat the biggest bowl of beans you’ve ever eaten. Wait an hour or two, and then you…GET READY TO RUMBLE!!!!

      Ha. Take a TBS per day, in any cold to warm liquid of your choosing, empty stomach or around food. I suggest both. Mix it up. Each week, increase by 1 TBS until you’re at 4. If you have troubles like bloating, GIT pain, enormous flatulence that you just have to laugh at, then back off. Go a day or two, back off 1TBS when you resume, and restart the 7 day clock.

      That should do it.

    • Thank you for your kindness, oh gentle one. You slammed the comment before mine, before you deleted it, so I appreciate you letting me slide…..this time. With one cup of starch and a bowl of bean, i would suspect more than just sliding to be happening…:)

      I start today, so updates to come. I will be a testimony for or against RS. We shall see.

    • It was easier to just ask. But, thanks.

  15. You’re done here, JS. Now I will delete you. My living room. You’re stinking up the place.

  16. What a pleasant fellow. Lots of people with anger issues around here.

  17. In the comments section, Dr. Ayers has added the following conjecture / hypothesis which could relate to RS’s contribution to lucid dreaming that Richard has discussed here at length:

    “I would guess that by lowering inflammation, RS also enhances vitD production and so contributes to sleep. It would be interesting to see if the epidemic of vitD deficiency yields to RS. I don’t know enough about melatonin to go there. “

    • gabriella kadar says:

      A neurobiochemist at Cornell who was asked this question about dreaming conjectures that shortchain fatty acids make it to the brain and are probably responsible for the dreaming.

      So take the potato starch later in the day to benefit from a burst of SSFA during the night. It’ll also keep your blood sugar stable.

      Why do Africans love to dance? I’m gradually coming to the speculative conclusion that it’s the resistant starch.

    • I still think it’s increased B6 (or something down the metabolic pathway that B6 leads to). B6 taken at night increases vivid dreaming, anecdotally. I don’t see that extra energy from SCFAs would do something that different. I think the SCFAs help with the sleep, but they aren’t the source of the vivid dreams. Here’s something from LiveStrong, but there’s lots of anecdotes out there, and I have that study they referred to below.

      B6 and Dreaming: A Scientific Study
      Little scientific evidence supports the claim that vitamin B6 affects dreams. In fact, a 2002 study at City College of New York is perhaps the sole research. To examine the claims that Vitamin B6 increases vividness of dreams and enhances dream recall ability, researchers conducted a placebo, double-blind study. Twelve college students were given either a placebo or various doses of B6 before bed for five consecutive days. Reports showed that students who had 250 mg of B6 had a higher rate of dream recall. This was based on a “dream saliency score” which measured the vividness, bizarreness, color and emotionality of the dreams. Researchers suggest that the B6 may increase cortical arousal during REM sleep and hypothesize that this is caused by the B6 converts tryptophan to serotonin.

    • While RS is indeed turning out to be a panacea for me, I have never experienced any lucid dreams or any difference in dreaming at all. I’ve been taking varying amounts, up to 8 tbls of PS plus beans plus SBOs. I do have a history of migraines and chronic headaches. Maybe I have a different neurotransmitter thing going on.

    • @gabriella kadar

      Interesting remark about the African dancers. And what about the African runners? Anyone able to estimate the proportion of RS in the nutrition of Kenyan top level runners?

      http://runnersconnect.net/running-nutrition-articles/diet-of-kenyan-runners/

      detailed composition analyzed here, pg 56
      http://theses.gla.ac.uk/903/1/2009fudgephd.pdf

    • Those who are intrigued about the sleep and dreaming issues may find some food for thought here:

      http://forum.polyphasicsociety.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=141

      I think I’m not alone in feeling pretty much good to go after 5hrs sleep.

    • Cool, I hope, but I absolutely refuse to torture myself reading any text that’s not against a white background. And a back background is the biggest sin of all.

    • I was just going to say the same thing about the black background. But I did read it and it and the comments are interesting.

    • Nice connect the dots story. But his recommendation to get butyrate by either eating animal fast or a lot of soluble fiber is lame. Here at FTA We have figured out a much better way to produce butyrate in the colon itself -where it is needed most- by eating RS and feeding the gut bugs. But a good scientific explanation nonetheless.

    • T-Nat

      Go read his latest post so you can feel lamer.

    • LOL Richard, let’s all dial back to ketogenic and VLC diets :-)

    • gabriella kadar says:

      The Kenyan and Ethiopian runners belong to a distinct tribe. All this maize porridge consumption (hot and cold) especially cold, is the resistant starch component of the diet.

      I’ve made fufu at home. It’s actually good in stews. Sort of like dumplings. Except smoother. You have to oil the ball so it won’t stick while being kneeded. I didn’t know if I’d like this stuff given how much whities complain about it when they are living in Africa. But it’s got quite a good addictive potential.

  18. What brand of SBO’s is recommended?

    • Ive been using three, with excellent results (never felt a thing from lacto stuff)

      – Prescript Assist
      – AOR Probiotic-3
      – Primal Defense Ultra

      I take 1 or eat, 2 times per day on average.

    • @Richard,

      Do you take any psyllium husk or seed? If so, which version and what brand do you recommend?

    • RN,

      Are you popping the pills, mixing their contents with PS, or something else? I’ve mixed a couple of prescript assist with BRM but generally just pop ‘em as is.

    • @Taggart,

      You asked this of RN but here’s my N=1 experience and opinion: For the purpose of distributing RS towards the lower reaches of one’s colon, use the husk. I went with Now Foods Psyllum Husks Whole in a one pound bag, shipped from Amazon. It’s almost gone so I’m looking this again. My l0cal health food shop has psyllum in bulk so I may get a similar product there, or I may just reorder the Now from Amazon. I’m not aware of any significant difference between whole husks and powdered.

      Your results may be different but my own experience was that after a several weeks, I found that taking more than 1 Tablespoon per day was too much. I cut back to 1 teaspoon once or twice a day, which is working very well for me.

    • Taggart:

      Nope, used to have some WAY way back, like in the 90s for Atkins Constipation.

    • The Natural says:

      LIfted this from comments on Dr.BG’s blog. This is from the website of a recommended probiotics.

      “http://www.bodybiotics.com/product_detail.php?product_id=5

      Contraindications:

      • The use of psyllium seed husk with Body Biotics™ is discouraged because of its indiscriminate stripping away of both friendly and unfriendly bacteria. Use of psyllium seed husk could minimize the positive health benefits of Body Biotics™.”

      I have never heard about psyllium causing harm to good bacteria. It has been suggested here and on BG’s blog to take psyllium along with PS to distribute it to the distal portions of the colon.

      Anyone has anything to share on this topic?

    • Nope, just taking in pill form. Doubt it matters. They’re spores, so going to take time to come alive anyway, and I don’t know how long.

  19. I’m still working on it, but I’ve found my best results are to take 2 tsp tapioca + 1 tsp PS + scoop of Primal defense. I mix it up in cool water couple hours before bedtime, stirring now and then, so the starch and SBO have time to get it on. I down it right before bed. I’m hypoglycemic and it does help keep me more stable through the night, but if I go any higher with the starches it seems to back fire. I haven’t noticed any other benefits, but that one is big, and I’m just trusting the others are there.

    • Q- I have “reactive hypoglycemia” from adrenal fatigue. I’m finding the same thing. How long have you been using the SBO? Which brand are you using? Have you seen any improvement in your gut since starting the SBO? I am still waiting for mine to come in the mail – Primal Defense, and I’m really hoping for great things.

      Did you notice any side effects you didn’t expect when you started the SBO? I’ve read to start them slowly, as some people can experience a die-off of some bacteria or yeasts that can be quite unpleasant.

      Ann

    • Ann, I am using the “Primal Defense HSO” powder, it does not say ‘ultra’ on it. I have no idea if there is an improvement in my gut, because my digestion and bowel movements have always been quite regular. I can say I have been farting more in general and the farts smell quite bad. Thank god I work at home.

      In general, I think for anyone with a weakened condition, such as myself, just start slowly and don’t feel like you have to get up to 4TB of starch ASAP to have any benefit. Experiment and see if and what and how much feels best to you. I can say in my entire history of experimenting with supplements (and there have been many hundreds) I am left with like 3 that I still take and the rest I eventually discarded. So just go slow, give it a couple months and see FOR YOURSELF if it is providing you with a benefit.

    • gabriella kadar says:

      Ann, do you have a glucose meter?

      I find that people who begin their day with easily digestible carbs out of balance with fat and protein get what you call ‘reactive hypoglycemia’. Stuff like toast with jam, fruit, fruit juice and sugar in the coffee. Then a couple or so hours later they’ve got the shakes and feel awful. I recommend to eliminate all sources of sugar in the a.m. Better if toast is on the menu, stay with 1 slice and put cheese on it. Eat sardines on toast, liverwurst, salami, ham, or cottage cheese (full fat), eggs, bacon. No fruit juice. No sugar in coffee or tea. People report they feel a lot better. Always stick to 1 serving of readily digested carbs. 2 corn tortillas, 1/2 cup of rice. Whatever.

      Fruit is safest in the early afternoon. Fruit juice, never.

  20. How much time are people taking from finising dinner to taking RS + SBO’s before bed. The AOR recommenda usage between meals, so I want to be sure I’m waiting long enough.

  21. This bit intrigued me: “Food intolerances (also mistakenly called food allergies) result from missing bacteria and their enzymes to fully digest soluble fibers.”

    Has anyone seen more on this topic?

    • gabriella kadar says:

      Andrew, it’s pretty obvious if you take a look at the gut bug profiles on American food project. We have most of us been exposed to antibiotics which appear to, more or less, permanently adversely affect the bacterial diversity in the gut.

      People who have been on VLC for extended periods of time seem to have the most trouble with stinky farts, bloating, etc. Their gut bugs have been reduced because they have not been fed. It is possible that some species are missing entirely. Then all of a sudden adding resistant starch makes these people uncomfortable.

      BUT and this is important: butyric acid produced by fermentation of resistant starch in the colon is protective for cancer. Period. If only that one thing, it’s important. Fecal pH matters. High pH encourages the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Low pH inhibits their growth. The only way to get low pH is through bacterial fermentation of plant fibres (including resistant starch especially) and the production of short chain fatty acids: butyric, propionic and acetic.

  22. Resistant starch has completely eliminated embarrassing armpit sweat for me. I’ve always contributed it to anxiety, but I don’t know if that’s an accurate assessment. RS has been a magic bullet for me.

  23. Dr Art Ayers I have been reading for a long time and to see his interest in RS I must admit was very interesting…

    On the kefir front, I make 1 litre a day shared with kids and family. Kefir is what I prefer to give kids over milk.

    Interestingly..on kefir why i wanted to do it was the K2 and other vits from the bacteria. It wasn’t intended as a replacement for fermented vegs etc.

    I don’t see dr ayers discuss any of the nutrient qualities of kefir.

    BUT dr ayers makes clear, the antibacterial qualities of milk don’t make it to the intestine! they are broken up, so in fact, he doesnt come out and say milk is that bad (to my understanding).

  24. John wagner says:

    Xylitol is an interesting sweetener seems it also is a prebiotic and is easily fermented into SCFA. Any thoughts on this, Richard?

    • gabriella kadar says:

      John, like any of the sugar alcohols, if you consume too much you’ll get diarrhoea. Not sure how effective it is as a prebiotic. Plants produce sugar alcohols for two reasons: prevent freezing of sap and discourage bacterial growth. Sugar alcohol lowers the freezing point. I’m not sure what’s in pansies but it’s probably something similar since they withstand freezing.

    • “Xylitol is an interesting sweetener”

      I have zero sweeteners in my house, though there may be an old brick of brown sugar in a cupboard somewhere in my wife’s old baking box. I have a pot of honey, newly acquired, but that’s not to sweeten anything but to eat a TBS right before bed every night as an experiment. Blog to follow.

      I began drinking my coffee black at age 10. I have zero interest in sweeteners of any kind, never have. Food is plenty sweet as is.

Speak Your Mind

*