Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance

Hot off the presses this week, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Tim writes in email.

Hey, Guys, check this out. A new paper (review of other studies) just out this week. Kind of disappointing, but still a total 'Win' for us. The goal of the paper was to see if RS was a 'superfood' for losing weight. The answer is a resounding 'NO,' simply adding RS to one's diet does not lead to weight loss. It does however, lead to improved insulin sensitivity, reduced visceral fat, a reduction in inflammation, and reduced risk for diabetes, CVD, and cancer.

They seemed to have pinned down why it doesn't work for weight loss. And this should make everyone think about how silly the term 'weight loss' really is. RS is not a good weight loss tool because it leads to an increase in lean body mass!

So, I'm really glad that we never portrayed this as a weight loss tool. We are vindicated in our explanations of why RS is a good thing—and it ties intimately with the gut microbiome. Here are a few clips from the paper, but please have a read and see what you think. It basically describes every human and animal study ever done, but focuses mostly on weight loss and Total Energy Expenditure ('TEE').

From the Abstract

"The obesity epidemic has prompted researchers to find effective weight-loss and maintenance tools. Weight loss and subsequent maintenance are reliant on energy balance-the net difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Negative energy balance, lower intake than expenditure, results in weight loss whereas positive energy balance, greater intake than expenditure, results in weight gain. Resistant starch has many attributes, which could promote weight loss and/or maintenance including reduced postprandial insulinemia, increased release of gut satiety peptides, increased fat oxidation, lower fat storage in adipocytes, and preservation of lean body mass. Retention of lean body mass during weight loss or maintenance would prevent the decrease in basal metabolic rate and, therefore, the decrease in total energy expenditure, that occurs with weight loss. In addition, the fiber-like properties of resistant starch may increase the thermic effect of food, thereby increasing total energy expenditure. Due to its ability to increase fat oxidation and reduce fat storage in adipocytes, resistant starch has recently been promoted in the popular press as a "weight loss wonder food". This review focuses on data describing the effects of resistant starch on body weight, energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition to determine if there is sufficient evidence to warrant these claims."

As Tim said, we have never once touted this as a weight loss deal. What we have been open to is the possibility that perhaps over as long a time as it caused to mess up a gut and gain a lot of fat, that with a clean diet incorporating RS, perhaps satiety signals will be better and a person might lose excess fat slowly. Since I began incoprating RS in April, I've dropped 10 pounds—about a pound per month—with doing absolutely nothing to try to lose weight. I only learned this just yesterday, because I hadn't stepped on a scale in quite a long time but noticed my face looked leaner. Was just going by how my pants fit, and I was satisfied. I also "feel" as though I've gained lean mass in upper body and thighs and anymore, I don't do much but walk and take hikes now & then. A little fun with the kettle bells in the backyard, now & then.

We got hold of the full text and here's some of the meat quotes with emphasis added.

"Despite numerous observations in rodents and humans describing no change in body weight, energy intake, or TEE in response to RS ingestion, almost every rodent study that has measured body composition finds lower fat mass (FM) and/or higher LBM with RS ingestion.

"These data have been scrutinized and replicated many times in different experimental paradigms, lending credence to the idea that RS causes changes in metabolic flux that act to increase fat oxidation with a concomitant decrease in carbohydrate and protein oxidation. Thus, RS could increase protein accretion (LBM) and reduce the amount of fat available for net storage without changing TEE. In addition, it has been shown that high fiber diets, such as a RS diet, cause lower total metabolizable energy than predicted/measured in vitro due to decreased in vivo digestibility of non-starch polysaccharides, carbohydrate, and fat (Behall and Howe, 1995). Thus, there may be less net carbohydrate and fat available for storage in response to a RS diet. [...]

"Taken together, these data provide convincing evidence that the gut microbiome can play a crucial role in the absorption and use of dietary nutrients as well as exhorting a strong influence the development of obesity. As RS can change the microbiome of the gut, it is reasonable to assume that RS consumption could influence the development of obesity and the success of weightloss/ maintenance attempts.

"Five important caveats regarding data interpretation were discussed:

1) Energy intake may be dependent on the energy density of the diet; future studies should consider this during the experimental design process.

2) Higher total bowel content, lumen thickness, and mass of the microbiome in response to RS ingestion can cause overestimation of total body weight.

3) Data in humans is from healthy adults who are able to effectively regulate body weight. It is likely that different effects would be observed in obese subjects.

4) Acute human studies have been too short to observe any effect of RS fermentation on TEE.

5) Visual analog scale estimation of hunger may not correlate well with food intake; therefore, data from subjective measurements should be interpreted carefully.

"It is apparent that ingestion of RS, relative to DS (digestible starch), has no effect on body weight in healthy rodents, no effect on energy intake, although this seems to be dependent on the energy density of the diet, and the effects on TEE are equivocal and require further investigation. However, there is strong evidence that RS lowers whole-body and visceral adiposity. The magnitude of these changes in adiposity are very large and sufficient to independently improve insulin sensitivity, and reduce the risk of diabetes, CVD, and certain cancers.

"Human data corresponds well with that from rats. RS, in comparison with DS, does not seem to have any impact on body weight, although studies in humans would need to be of longer duration in order to observe any such effect, has no effect on energy intake or TEE, and increases fat oxidation. There is a scarcity of data regarding the effect of RS on fat mass and LBM in humans. There is data from mice and humans to show that RS changes the microbiota in the gut which has been shown to influence energy absorption and the development of obesity.

"There is some scant evidence that the metabolic changes that occur in response to RS ingestion may not occur in obese rodents. Clearly, further studies need to be conducted in obese humans and rodent models before any conclusions can be drawn regarding the usefulness of RS in this population. A plethora of metabolic adaptations occur in obesity and in the weight-reduced state, including changes to the microbiota that influence energy absorption from the diet and obesity, and it is vital to determine if RS has any biologically relevant effects under these conditions. The observation that RS increases protein retention during overfeeding indicates that RS could have positive effects on body composition and, therefore, on BMR. Clearly, there is evidence that RS has effects, such as increased fat oxidation and reduced fat storage in adipocytes, that imply that it would be a useful weight-loss and/or maintenance tool. However, there is no direct data showing that RS has any impact on body weight, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct well-designed studies, of sufficient duration, in obese individuals during periods of underfeeding, overfeeding, and energy balance before any meaningful conclusions can be drawn."

So there you have it. Pretty much as we suspected. Feed the gut, healthy gut. Healthy gut, healthier human. Healthier human, well regulated hormones and over time, nature takes its course in the most perfect way possible: Body Recomposition vs. simplistic "weight loss" strategies.

Anyone still think they don't have a "starch deficiency?"

Comments

  1. bornagain says:

    Hmm, study below seems to indicate that the addition of fiber (wheat bran in this case) is necessary to ensure that fermentation of the RS takes place in the lower intestine. I may take my RS with bananas or other high fiber fruit and vegetables just to be sure – no wheat bran for me.

    “…whereas addition of WB moved the site of fermentation further down the colon, improving conditions in the distal lumen by increasing concentrations of butyrate and lowering concentrations of ammonia (29). Tumor formation was studied in rats after a 10-wk course of dimethylhydrazine (25). The RS diet (raw potato starch) increased the number and size of tumors (25). Importantly, this negative effect of RS was reversed when the RS was combined with WB (25). Similar results were found for the highly fermentable fibers guar gum and pectin (33). The finding that diets high in RS without other fiber may not be protective against tumor formation is also borne out by a recent study by Wacker et al ”

    http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/79/6/1020.full

    • BA:

      Yea, that paper has been discussed before and it’s one reason why some take PS with things like phylum and whatnot. But yea, that’s just what they used in the study, so mixing things up with various veg, fruit, legume fiber would probably be a good idea some of the time.

      I like to do variations on other things.

      Ha, I noticed guy’s name is “Wacker.” Ha! I love 5th grade humor.

    • That study is kind of strange. They injected the rats for 10 weeks or so with a powerful carcinogen, then examined only the last 1cm of the large intestine for tumors. They found that rats fed PS+Wheat chaff had less tumors in that final segment.

      I’ve seen other studies that suggest combining RS with other fibers helps spread the fermentation, if you are eating all the other stuff, ie. cooked/cooled beans, rice, potatoes, green bananas, salads, etc… you are good to go. If you are on a keto diet w/PS as only source of RS, you may need to consider wheat chaff or something else.

  2. Good stuff.

    My previous “starch deficiency” is now in balance…thank you very much.

    I think I might try adding some insoluble fiber and see how that goes…

    Speaking of fifth grade humor, years ago (as in many many) I attended a church whose pastor was named Wacker…Pastor Wacker…

    Cheers

  3. I’m around 6′ 1” tall and have hovered around 155 to 163 lbs during the last several years of paleo experiments, including PHD with weightlifting. After being hollowed out to the low 150′s again by a stomach flu a few months ago I started the PS in earnest. Since then my weight has soared into the 170′s. I can see in my online health records that when I visited the doctor in April 2012 I weighed 154.4 with my clothes on. I just visited the doctor again last week and weighed 182 with clothes on. That my be the most weight I’ve ever carried, and for me that’s a good thing. Most of the weight, subjectively speaking, is muscle mass. Both doctor visits were for headaches, which haven’t changed unfortunately, but the quest continues.

    My theory was that part of the gain was made possible by the fact that PS got things moving so that my digestive system was physically able to process more food per day than it could before. But I’m sure there was a lot of complex hormonal stuff happening too. My appetite became enormous. All that happened with no exercise other than yard work.

    It may be analogous to how RS can help alleviate both constipation and diarrhea (I assume). Perhaps it can help with both over and under weight. Or maybe those seemingly different problems are actually both problems of low lean body mass, and RS helps with that.

    • Gordon:

      Very interesting. In theory, a proper gut with proper hormonal signaling should work this way, over time. Those with too much BF feel satiated. Those with too little and or/too little lean feel hungry.

      Cool.

    • This is super fascinating! Thanks for posting.

      Three years ago, my husband did a six week “milk cure,” drinking nothing but tons of raw milk for the whole time. It was the first time in his life that he was able to gain weight, and he was thrilled. He also felt pretty weak, and it was obviously not long-term sustainable, but a number of other Slightly Unmentionable symptoms went away during that time (only to reappear when he started eating food again; he also lost the weight quickly).

      One of the interesting things that happened right before he started gaining weight was that he got this crazy, almost prickly sensation on his abdomen, right where he subsequently started gaining weight.

      Anyway…he’s been taking potato starch for the last month, and…some of those TMI symptoms have reduced significantly. And today, he noticed the prickly sensation on his abdomen. I am SO hoping that weight gain will follow! He would be thrilled.

      I would be fascinated to know why drinking-only-milk and taking-potato-starch could have similar effects, if my spouse really does begin gaining weight…

    • For years, I too have thought that overweight and underweight must be almost like flip sides of the same hormonal coin…not that I understand what that is!

    • Holy smokes man. Hypertrophy by fixing the gut and a subsequent increase in protein synthesis? Immensely fascinating. I like your theory Gordon.

    • Now you’re thinking there, TR, open to the possibilities.

      And it only makes sense. Most people, in fact, do not “lift weights” and they have perfectly fine muscular tone. How can it be? How do kids grow lean mass if they’re not out “lifting weights?”

      The Broscience, apparently says you have to “lift weights” in order to not be a bad of fatty water hanging on bones.

      I’d be willing to bet there’s articles on Dr. Andro’s Suppversity site dealing with “nutritional hypertrophy,” i.e., apart from the context of “lifting weights.” And, of course we now it’s true anyway. Simply piling on the weight is about 25% lean mass to 75% fat. However, in Michelle’s case, the research suggests (and her face bolsters the suggestion) that we are looking at a slow recomposition, fat loss combined with lean gain.

      http://freetheanimal.com/2014/02/resistant-balance-maintenance.html

    • “How do kids grow lean mass if they’re not out “lifting weights?” ” – they’re doing bodyweight exercise all the time while playing perhaps ??

    • And infants?

  4. Wanker! This is why I love this blog, among other nuggets.

    A couple of other deficiencies I no longer feel I have, thanks to RS … sleep deficiency and energy deficiency. I also no longer have a caffiene deficiency as I wake up each morning bright-eyed and ready to seize the day.

    I’m only a couple weeks in, but seeing promising results already. Thanks, Richard and Tim.

  5. Probably no reason for you to worry now, but if one day you find yourself with problems that seem gut related, keep in the back of your mind that RS+probiotics may help.

  6. v, my advice to you is, get to a naturopath with a specialty in gut health if you really want to know what is going on in your body.

    I see that my situation might be similar to yours. I felt fine, actually excellent, after almost 3 years of low to very low carb paleo. Never was thinner, stronger, more alert and energetic. Then I went to the doctor for a routine bone scan and was shocked to find that I had lost even more bone mass. I expected it to be back up into “perfect” range. Shocked, and then royally pissed-off– at my religious-like belief in low-carb paleo. I started reading more widely. Also, I got to a naturopath, to get a full work-up. Turns out I actually had a very “disordered gut.” Not digesting well, not assimilating, wasting lots of my expensive organic nutrients, my grass-fed protein, etc. Hormones gone to pot. Cortisol whacked out, or should I say, whackered out. All this with years of excellent blood work at my doctor’s. All my hard work, the denying myself good foods like beans and potatoes–and what had it gotten me besides losing 20 lbs? The point is, I had no clue, and refused to take websites seriously unless they echoed back my belief, which was, that low-carb paleo was The One-and-Only Silver Bullet.

  7. Jew Lee Us C Czar says:

    I’ve noticed quite a bit of body recomp when using the RS. Scale says my weight is higher than before, but my belt has to get a notch tighter to keep my pants up.

    However, I did have to dial back the dosage a bit. I took a 2 week break over the holidays, then started with a 1 tsp dose and increased by the same amount every 10 days. I first went full bore with 1 TBSP and the results were, well, hot and smelly. This lower amount has allowed a more gradual adaptation without the smelly farts and such. This is also coming from someone who has always eaten plenty of starch and carbs.

    • gabriella kadar says:

      JLUCC, that’s the problem: cooked starches don’t make a big impact on the colon digesters. You are doing it just fine, increasing at the rate your gut bugs can cope with it.

  8. Jew Lee Us C Czar says:

    I had a similar epihpany with my teeth. Thought they would be impervious after two years on low carb. Then I went to the dentist, and the calculus was out of control and my gums bled easily during the initial cleaning. I ate plenty of good meat and vegetables, but it was obviously not nourishing my bones and teeth. a higher carb diet with plenty of starch and fruit has made my teeth much healthier. My cleanings over the last few years have taken 10 minutes or less, and the dentist has been impressed with my mouth health.

    The mouth is the first part of the entire digestive system!

  9. gabriella kadar says:

    v, did this ‘foul natto’ start after I suggested it? LOL! I’ve got mine defrosting on the kitchen counter right now. Just eat it before it gets too warm.

    There is a claim that if you can eat it for 30 days in a row, it gets better. I’m not sure. The longest I’ve lasted is 2 weeks. Back in those days I let it get warmed up and mixed it with the condiments provided. I had to scrub the spider webby goo off my face afterwards.

    There’s always more in those sytrofoam containers than I’d prefer to consume. Ack.

  10. Funny, I had just the opposite experience…healthy whole grains, lots of fruit and veg, low fat/non-fat dairy from the mid 80s to 2008 and my teeth and gums went to crap. Switched to a high fat/low carb paleo diet plus flax oil and all the calculus (plaque/tartar or what ever you call that brownish crap that builds up between and in back of your teeth) literally fell of my teeth, my gums stopped bleeding and my teeth are whiter even though I did not stop drinking coffee or tea.

    Go figure…

  11. For me,

    Lifetime of vegetarian/high-carb/high-fiber/lowish-fiber diet led to a mouth full of cavities and receding gums by age 30.

    Then, switching to a gut-healing, inadvertantly-very-low-carb diet helped tremendously. My dentist was very impressed.

    Then, two years in, age 32, and things started going downhill again. This past fall, at 34, my tooth cracked, my gums were bleeding again, the dentist wanted to extract or root canal a tooth. This is what led to me learn a bit about resistant starch…because something wasn’t working with the Last Dietary Plan anymore.

    Now I’m so excited! I’m hopeful that all the gut healing-and-sealing that I was doing over the past several years might have set my body up to respond WELL to resistant starch and digestible starch both, if I ease into them…

    Because it’s so interesting, isn’t it? I’m going back to eating some of the foods that I think were problematic before, and yet now, potentially, the CONTEXT is different. I eat animal fats where once I consumed soy and canola oil. I’ll try some white rice tomorrow…instead of basing my entire diet on grains.

    Context is so fascinating me. I really hope my teeth find it to be the case too! I’m still hoping to save the tooth that the dentist told me (last month) that I really need to get pulled…

  12. Yea, Sarabeth, I think it’s easy.

    Clean Paleo, but instead of all that bullshit cauliflower rice and cauliflower mashed potatoes….have about 1/3 of your intake as starches mixed between white rice, potatoes, and legumes.

    I love saying this, because it so makes me laugh at how so many can’t even look. It violates all their religious tenants (because, if this is better, “low carb is an ass,” in the spirit of Mr. Bumble).

    A third of calories is very, very reasonable and so many people are finding so much much benefit to it. Thanks to Paul Jaminet for coming and slumming with the LC Paleos, eh? Soon enough, maybe he’ll see that properly prepared legumes, if part of the diet with rice & potatoes, is gonna be 10-15%. And hey, my in-laws are all Mexican “beaners” and some of them are very long lived and lean, provided they’re sticking to the maize tortillas, not the farina….i.e., the traditional fare.

  13. gabriella kadar says:

    Tenets, Richard. I wouldn’t want too many religious tenants.

    Bought another bag of corn tortillas. Great stuff. Keep them in the fridge, heat them on the hot cast iron pan.

  14. gabriella kadar says:

    Depends on how much amylase you produce in your saliva. And if the ‘carbs’ are easily fermented or resistant. Plus low fat, especially no dairy fat means no vitamin K2. Read WAPF on vitamin k2. Eat beef and pork kidney, chicken liver, lamb brains, lamb kidneys, egg yolks, sea urchin roe (uni), cod liver and roe… all good sources of vitamin K2… and natto, that disgusting slimy crap.

  15. My 2 fav sushi going back to 1884: ikura (salmon roe) and uni (roe as well, but you can’t differentiate–its baby poop). If both are fresh, they are to me the most 2 wonderfully acquired tastes in the world.

    If not fresh, you can gag. Actually, my taste for both is so long term I can handle and enjoy just a bit “off.” not too much though, then they become a chore to eat. But even then, I’ve done way off a few times.

    Make sure you have a Sapporo on hand. Way better than Kirin.

  16. I’m saving myself for Chapter 5, Gabriella.

  17. Jew Lee Us C Czar says:

    V said:

    “Czar, my teeth don’t seem to be worse so maybe my bones are not that bad off.”

    I hope your bones are strong. They are the base of your body.

    Charlie said:

    “Funny, I had just the opposite experience…healthy whole grains, lots of fruit and veg, low fat/non-fat dairy from the mid 80s to 2008 …”

    Bummer to hear that. I hope you can heal.

  18. gabriella kadar says:

    The uni is on sale here but I passed. Bought it a few times in December but then it was brilliant orange. This stuff was kind of beige. meh. corn/rice spaghetti with uni and ikura = yum. The situation is that for $17 they sell 32 pieces in a box. Since I live alone, that translates to ‘free basing on uni’.

  19. gabriella kadar says:

    v, I vary my sources of K2. If necessary, I’ll take a 5mg Carlson vitamin K2 capsule. So I eat dietary sources that provide vitamin K2 and occasionally defrost one of these gross, slimy disgusting nattos. I also have powdered natto. It’s in a tub and you can find it in the Korean supermarket in the same aisle as various other powdered items like powdered soybean, potato starch, corn starch, mung bean starch. I have a Galleria near me so it’s easy to find this stuff. I don’t know if there are enough Koreans in Montreal to warrant them opening their own supermarket.

    I think, in the protein department, if a person focuses on consuming those which contain vitamin K2, all the other nutrients, aside from what’s in vegetables, will be covered. Koreans do not appear to go in for organ meats, but the Chinese supermarket right nearby sells all this stuff. They’ve got a very comprehensive selection of all Asian foods. I’m living in the most multi-ethnic riding in Canada. So there’s everything within a 5 minute drive. African, Asian, Middle Eastern, West Indian…. it’s actually difficult to find mundane stuff like Orville Redenbacher’s popcorn. I had to go to the Loblaw’s Superstore (hate the place) for that. Seems popcorn is a North American ‘thing’.

    The meat and chicken they sell is from Quebec. Liberterre. And LeBreton.

    Being as what I do for a living, my teeth and other oral tissues are not a problem. If I would have made a different choice when at university, I’d probably have some.

    If I had a bone density scan indicating osteopenia, I’d freak out.

    My friend, who is now crapping the light fantastic with the potato starch, had a bone density scan done a number of years ago. She was told her bones weren’t great. That was probably 7 years ago. I put her on a combination of D3 4,000 IU, K2 5mg, A 25,000 IU once per week, and magnesium. She gets enough calcium in her diet. The last two bone scans were perfect. These days she takes the D3 and K2 three times per week. She does not go out in the sun. So there’s hope. It takes a couple of years of consistency to see improvement. Now, she was also on hormone replacement the whole time and before. So it seems the hormone replacement did not spare her bones.

  20. Jew Lee

    Search my blog for Vitamin K2 (lots of posts back in the day). That combined with Vitamin D was an enormous help for my teeth (calculus) and gums, and I had 2 gum surgeries in 2001 and basically had to have 4 cleanings a year and get the gums poked with that measuring deal. The D and K2 fixed all that in spite of LC Paleo (keeping off grains is a big factor, I think).

    Hygienist and dentist was amazed at the reversal, especially in some of the “deep pockets.” Told them about Weston Price, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration. Not interested. “Whatever you’re doing…”

    So, I’ve been damn happy but guess what? Since incorporating the RS and carbs, my teeth are so pearly it defies belief. I really don’t even have to brush, only use a toothpick to dislodge in between stuff and push the gum tissue around. When I do brush, I use a dry brush, then rinse.

    Haven’t had a cleaning in over 3 years, now.

  21. Here’s a dish they make in France, typically a quick & easy evening meal.

    Noodles, the small fettuccine are the ones, and I think you can get those in corn/rice/quinoa now. Two bottles of the lumpfish eggs (one black, one red), and a tub of crème fraîche, finely ground black pepper.

    Drain and rinse the eggs or your dish will be too salty. I just lay a paper towel in a colander to strain the water. Make your pasta as per usual, add the eggs and creme, no need to heat it. It’s not intended to be a hot dish (though I leave the creme out so it’s room temp. Pepper to taste.

    It is so awesome.

  22. v,
    Yes, I have had 3 DEXA scans in about 13 years. The first result was high osteopena, then more bone loss, and now I have slipped into the osteoporosis part of the graph. I am 64 yrs. old.

    My teeth are slowly degrading, also, I didn’t mention that before. Teeth> bones> gut. I’m still pissed off. I have gardened organically for 30 yrs, I keep worm bins (talk about gross dirt, quintillions of SBOs!), I eat produce right out of the garden with dirty hands, knew not to take antibiotics, no hand sanitizers, no household cleaning crap. Haven’t used shampoo for 4 years (think I may have got that from Richard). I Lift weights, ride bikes, indoor rock climb. Ate low carb to very low carb paleo. Alas, it didn’t work. But I am not giving up.

    Needless to say, I have been looking for answers like crazy. Beyond what my naturopath has prescribed, I now take Vit. K2 and eat natto, kimchee, gochuchang (Korean fermented paste) for the SBO’s, which is “Soil-Borne Organisms.” And of course, potato starch and resistant starch foods, all learned about here on FTA.

  23. I have to take issue with calling the study a “win” for you. I know you’re now vested in resistant starch, and I agree that you guys have uncovered some incredibly interesting things, but I hope you take additional scientific evidence as simply more data to continue to refine your ideas. Defining as a win makes researchers only attempt to seek more win by trying only to reaffirm what they already believe. This isn’t sound science.

    • No, no, David. Game over. It’s all settled. Neither Tim nor I would ever think of looking at another piece of research.

      Right Tim?

      And the fact that this focussed ONLY on weight loss means nothing. We’re applying it across the board. In fact, right now we’re busy removing the 400+ RS research footnotes from the book as superfluous. This is the only one we need, now.

  24. Hi everybody,

    it has been now a full month, since I started with PS, started eating cold rice and potatoes and increased fermentable fiber in my diet (beans, chia seeds, okra, raw garlic, onions and topinambur). I also started in the same period drinking raw milk and upping my intake of fermented food (kefir and sauerkraut).
    In the beginning, the first two weeks I was feeling very tired. But generally, I noticed that I was losing weight and that I was losing appetite. 10 days ago I caught some sort of flu/cold and I was really sick (fever and whole body aches) only for one day. Diet-wise nothing changed, except that I ate more vitamin C rich fruits, raw garlic and fermented food. It has been a good week now that I am extremely bloated, all the time. No matter what I eat or don’t eat, the bloating does not change. Before the bloatings I was having 4 T of Ps per day plus other sources of fermentable fiber. In the last two days I decided to completely cut the PS. Anybody else has experienced this?
    I must say, that, besides regular bowel movement, although my stool is still far from perfect, I haven’t noticed any major change in energy levels, or other health markers.
    Do you have any suggestions for me?
    Thanks a lot. Drini

  25. I don’t have access to the full text – does it mention the extra weight of intestines measured in at least one study that sort of explained why fat had reduced more than overall weight – the extra “LBM” was thicker walls and more contents of the entrails. Needless to say this was an animal study ;-)

  26. mahsamahdavian says:

    Hi I am a graduate student food for one of my projects I need to full text of your article if possible please send me nasty.
    tnx for u.

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