The Most Dramatic Resistant Starch Success Story Yet

No introduction necessary.


Mr. Nikoley,

You and Tatertot Tim have stumbled, if that’s the correct word, onto something having more repercussions of which we “resistant-starchers” may be aware. The following is of course anecdotal, strictly an N=1 experiment.

Some relevant background: I am 61 years old, weigh 240 pounds (still obese but 60 pounds less so), and my menu is 99% very-low carb, less than 20 gm/day. In the past I ate sugar and its variants with abandon, to the point of gluttony; I love the stuff. As a result I had very high blood pressure and I was on the verge of becoming a full-blown T2 diabetic. My sugar cravings are now under control, my blood pressure is way down, the diabetes threat is non-existent, and blah, blah, blah, you know the story. However, a couple of things have continued to bother me.

Diarrhea has been a curse for many years, due no doubt to my pre-paleo menu, and any amount of sugar would result in an impressive blood glucose spike with an attendant spike in my blood pressure. Even if I spent the day completely avoiding carbohydrates, a single cookie or sliver of pie would result in the spikes and a bad night in bed with heartburn and small regurgitations of stomach contents. It’s been this way for the past few years.

Until your posts about resistant starches…

I have a degree in geology—part of my course of study was paleoarcheology—and I have been interested in our evolutionary ancestors’ diet since those days forty years ago, though I’m more a dilettante than an actual student of the subject. Your post on resistant starches, like Mark Sisson’s book Primal Blueprint, opened doors in my mind that had heretofore been invisible. I immediately saw the implications on blood glucose, the gut biome, etc., including the reason why a lot of people, such as modern “primitives,” can eat primarily fruits and such with no apparent ill effect. (The fiber content, supposedly blunting the sugar effect, has never fully explained, to me, the lack of damage that might be caused by a fruit diet. Are there resistant starches in fruit? Is there such a thing as a resistant sugar?)

I immediately purchased two bags of potato starch. I have been using milk kefir for many months and while it did reduce the diarrhea, the problem was not cured. Adding your proposed two tablespoons of potato starch twice per day helped a bit more but the curse persisted. The almost immediate effect of the potato starch though was the blunting of my blood glucose spikes if I ate any sugar. Another effect was a minor lowering of my blood pressure.

I have a self-imposed upper limit of 90 mg/dL (5 mmol/L) blood glucose. If it rises above that I get mad, obsessively tracking down the reason. I feel really, really good when my blood glucose stays between 73 and 80 mg/dL (4 to 4.4 mmol/L). Pre-paleo my blood pressure was in the area of 140/105 mmHg, post-paleo the pressure had stayed around 118/80 mmHg. About a week after starting potato starch my blood pressure dropped to an average of 113/75 mmHg and my blood glucose averaged 80 mg/dL (4.4 mmol/L) daily. But, as I said, my diarrhea continued to be a problem.

The Monday before Thanksgiving I got pissed off about my diarrhea situation and decided to double the dosage of the potato starch. That morning I put four tablespoons of starch in my usual pint of kefir and again Monday night before I went to bed. And Tuesday and Wednesday. Thursday, Thanksgiving Day, no more diarrhea; and the problem has not returned in the 2 1/2 weeks since.

Now to the point of this story. On Thanksgiving Day I ate cornbread dressing, ONE roll with butter, and a SLIVER of pumpkin pie with whipped cream. My blood glucose did spike of course but not as high as my history indicates. I figured it was one of those anomalies one gets from day-to-day and ignored the reduced numbers (four measurements over four hours). What did get my attention was sleeping soundly that night with no regurgitations at all; I slept the entire night, not awakening once.

Damned interesting that, and my attention was heightened. I’ve continued the protocol of 8 tablespoons of potato starch—4 in morning and 4 before bed—since Thanksgiving, wondering whether or not I’d meandered into something meaningful but I couldn’t figure out how to test it. Two days ago, Friday, Dec. 5, I decided to just do my usual stupid act of a full-speed-ahead experiment. I fixed a large amount of white rice, about three cups, and ate the entire amount. This meal should have put me in a light coma, spiking my blood sugar into the heavens and elevating my blood pressure. Well, my blood glucose did of course rise but only to a max of 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol). My blood pressure did rise but since I didn’t log it I can’t report the number but it didn’t go as high as I expected. Friday night I slept like a dead man, rising only once to urinate but immediately returning to sleep, and NO regurgitation.

Okay cool, fine, I’m onto something maybe. Now for an acid test; lets really stress this N=1 theory. Yesterday, Friday, Dec. 6, I went to the grocery store and purchased a large-ish chocolate bar, a package of Nabisco’s Fig Newtons, and a small bag of sugar cookies. After returning home I settled into my chair, turned the TV to one of those bad, but hilarious, science fiction movies wherein a beast is killing young people and the lone survivor is a 110 pound, axe-wielding teenage girl, and proceeded to eat the chocolate, one sleeve of the Fig Newtons, and the whole bag of Snickerdoodle cookies. I then waited for the consequences.

Over six hours my blood glucose peaked at 160 mg/dL from 78 mg/dL (4.3 to 8.9 mmol) and my blood pressure went from 105/69 to 136/88 mmHg. Whoa! The BG should have gone to the moon and the BP should have popped an artery like an overfilled balloon. One weird thing though, my head felt inflated as if it were indeed a balloon; a really strange sensation. I did fall asleep but I didn’t pass out as I would have in the past. (Unfortunately I cannot report the number of pieces into which the teenage heroine chopped the beast.) My stomach was not happy of course but I wasn’t suffering the usual torments either, another really weird non-event. Of course I didn’t eat anything for the rest of the day until bedtime when I drank a pint of kefir with four tablespoons of potato starch.

Now for the final act. I went to bed last night at midnight, expecting a really tough night. The amount of sugar and flour and bad, cheap oils I had eaten should have put me through unmitigated hell, Dante’s Third Ring as it were. I should have lain there for a couple of hours with heartburn, eventually falling asleep but awakening after an hour with a mouthful of stomach acid. In the past I would have brushed my teeth, drank a potion of water and baking soda to alleviate the acid stomach, and fallen back into a restless sleep. But not last night. I was asleep within minutes, even after having napped for a couple of hours, and didn’t awaken until 7:00 this morning. I did not have the usual heartburn, I was fully rested, and the usual morning-after bout of diarrhea was absent. My stomach is still somewhat annoyed but what does one expect after such goings on?

The really big news though is my blood glucose this morning was only 78 mg/dL (4.3 mmol), my blood pressure was at 103/65 mmHg, and my resting heart rate was 67 bpm. Genuinely startling numbers in light of my history. There is definitely something else occurring with the resistant starch protocol other than helping the gut biome. If the good bugs are way down in the colon and the spiking of insulin/blood glucose starts in the stomach or the mouth, why did my various numbers stay low? Why did my usual heartburn stay away, allowing a restful sleep? Obviously a high population of good gut bugs effects the entire body but I cannot connect the dots of a healthy colon and bad food in the mouth or stomach.

Regardless, whatever is going on, my life has gotten much better thanks to your posts on resistant starch. I sleep very well, my blood glucose stays in the 70 – 80 mg/dL (3.9 – 4.4 mmol), my blood pressure is usually around 105/65 mmHg, and the diarrhea has disappeared, all in just three weeks of a large intake of a resistant starch. Simply amazing and astounding and all the other synonyms.

My kefir protocol.


  • 1 pint milk kefir (my fermentation of course)
  • 4 tbls potato starch
  • 2 tbls cocoa powder (not Dutch-processed)
  • 1/4 tsp ascorbic acid powder (Vitamin C)
  • 1 tsp (2.5 gm) ground Ceylon cinnamon (anecdotally said to lower blood pressure, which I believe has some veracity)
  • 1/3-scoop veggie powder (Garden of Life’s “Perfect Food – Super Green Formula.” I am simply incapable of eating lots of vegetables, I don’t like them.)
  • Occasionally 1/4-cup of heavy cream for taste and mouth-feel
  • Occasionally 2 raw egg yolks for quickie protein
  • Occasionally pureed raw liver for all the benefits (contributes no discernable flavor but the color of the final mix is, um, unusual)

Shake/mix/blend well and allow it to sit for 20 minutes to let everything get soaked or dissolved or whatever. (Immediate ingestion doesn’t seem to do have much effect in the gut except impressive flatulence. For me, allowing the mix to sit for a while eliminates the flatulence. NB: I have been using the starch for several months so reduced flatulence may be due to my gut bugs having acclimated but if I drink the mix without the suggested soaking time I will sing a different tune. This fact is very important at night. Sweet Thang, on some matters, is so narrow-minded she can look through a keyhole with both eyes.)

Before bed:

  • 1 pint kefir
  • 4 tbls potato starch
  • 1/3-scoop veggie powder

Mix well, etc.

Thanks for your blog,



Nothing left to say. Your turn. Please share it. You never know who might be helped, a life veritably saved…just because you did, right in time and on time. …And to get caught up, here’s all the many posts on Resistant Starch.

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  1. Nick on December 7, 2013 at 18:48

    I haven’t read enough about this. Can someone explain to me why RS is so hyped compared to other prebiotics (e.g. inulin, FOS, pectin…)?

    I’m wondering because I was just reading the following articles:

    …and it seems like prebiotic FOS (oligofructose) can increase/stabilize healthy Akkermansia muciniphila and prevent obesity.

    Incidently, Akkermansia is also increased by RS:

    But really that just puts RS on the same footing as FOS.

    Anyways… I’m just thinking out loud here. Excuse me.

  2. Gaby A. on December 7, 2013 at 18:51

    What I want to know is, why are the panties in a bunch for all the members, over here:

    Dave Asprey seems a sensible guy, always questioning, but definitely a science/evidence based N=1 type of guy. The forum members on the other hand…

  3. Evolutionarily on December 7, 2013 at 23:17

    Richard, have you posted anything about discerning the difference between Potato Flour and Potato Starch?

    I am currently in Thailand and have to my surprise found Potato Starch in the supermarket, but I cannot read the entire back label and am worried it has been processed incorrectly and I am perhaps just taking in dried mash potatoes all day long.

  4. Grace/Dr.BG on December 8, 2013 at 03:38

    Hey Nick

    Have you seen this from Conway, it’s one of the best comparing RS v. Oligosaccharides/etc?

    Our overall health might really be about SIBO and rectal health…it’s not just RS but the whole ecosystem (kinda like how we are all interconnected like webs)

  5. doogiehowsermd on December 7, 2013 at 16:16

    My potato starch N=1 story involves coffee. I love the stuff but had to stop drinking it as it was wreaking havoc with my blood sugar. My energy would go through the roof for a few hours after drinking just one espresso in the morning and then by mid afternoon my energy would crash and I would find myself overeating to compensate for the energy loss.

    Not so since supplementing with resistant starch. I can now have 2-3 espressos with no energy crash late in the day. More generally I am much more stable and level headed on the potato starch. I find it is better taken twice a day than once a day.

    Also, I no longer dread the thought of skipping a meal. I know I’ll have the energy to make it to the next meal without getting foggy in the head.

  6. doogiehowsermd on December 7, 2013 at 16:21

    Oh, BTW, I forgot to mention I a also started supplementing with amino acids, magnesium and ceylon cinnamon at the same time as potato starch so I cannot say which is having the most effect. However, I do notice the days I miss the potato starch more than the days I miss the other supplements.

    And no, the butt-gas has not subsided. It’s as strong now as it ever was.

  7. gabriella kadar on December 7, 2013 at 16:31

    Okay, good.

    Next week is blood letting for thyroid testing. So far blood sugar never goes over 100. It used to sit at 110 during the day, fasting 95. Now it’s about 95 during the day. Will check fasting in the tomorrow a.m. Don’t know about blood pressure.

    For some reason I can’t understand, my body does not seem to want to let go of the potato starch. Maybe it’s in love….. know what I mean. Sort of TMI issue except there’s none to be too much about. No problems when it does but there’s no movement and no fartage. Just stayage. Maybe I need to eat some lentils or beets or something.

    The dreams: Totally X rated. I don’t know if that says something about me or what, but it’s every night. Not problematic, just not the usual. I was really wondering if I should add this but what the hell, for the sake of slightly embarrassing accuracy it’s not just ‘vivid dreams’. Or maybe other people were using the term ‘vivid’ to mean the same thing. I was wondering if besides effects on neurotransmitters there’s an effect on hormones (besides possibly Thyroid.)

    Here goes: tap the ‘submit’ button………….. crash, burn….

  8. Grace/Dr.BG on December 7, 2013 at 17:06


    U CRACK ME UP!!! Have you heard of the gut-brain-adrenal-thyroid-genitalia axis? LOL I think Spanish Caravan heard of it…

  9. gabriella kadar on December 7, 2013 at 17:11

    Oh good. I’m not the only one then? My brain is quite busy and inventive at night I’ll say that much.

  10. doogiehowsermd on December 7, 2013 at 17:57

    @ GK. Are you sure it’s really just a dream that you’re having?!?

  11. gabriella kadar on December 7, 2013 at 18:07

    Doogie, I hope so. It’s a bit difficult somnambulating when a person sleeps in a hammock.

  12. Mart on December 8, 2013 at 09:22

    I would be interested to know the effect RS has on people with the opposite weight problem. My girlfriend can eat anything and never gains weight. She is a petite 100 pounds. She is also hyperthyroid and this makes her even thinner, which is not fun in the current cold weather.

  13. Richard Nikoley on December 7, 2013 at 22:00

    “Totally X rated.”

    Gabriella. Suspicions confirmed. :)

  14. sootedninjas on December 8, 2013 at 13:07

    Health Canada approves Ingredion’s NUTRAFLORA prebiotic fiber as dietary fiber source

  15. Richard Nikoley on December 7, 2013 at 22:10

    “Oh good. I’m not the only one then? My brain is quite busy and inventive at night I’ll say that much.”

    My experience. I can create a whole new story in my head every night and on the edge of sleep, write on the fly unlike I can ever do fully conscious. It’s so good sometimes that I don’t even care about going to sleep, the darkness, stillness and slight chill are enough. I like to sleep slightly chilled, ie, just less than enough covers.

  16. Richard Nikoley on December 7, 2013 at 22:11

    Nick, there are like a dozen posts and over a thousand comments. Do your own fucking work and don’t ask anyone to explain it to you.

    You are not excused.

  17. sootedninjas on December 7, 2013 at 22:23

    wish I get those “vivid dreams” I sleep like a dead rock.

  18. sootedninjas on December 7, 2013 at 22:24

    it’s a good night sleep BUT it’s boring.

  19. doogiehowsermd on December 7, 2013 at 23:35

    @ Evolutionary! OMG! Bad question dude. Richard is going to get so mad at you.

  20. Grace/Dr.BG on December 8, 2013 at 14:45


    What a great response and that mirrors mine. I haven’t been able to tolerate dairy or gluten but after the SBO probiotics (on a diet already highly RS-enriched — red/black/brown rice, whole soaked Chinese grains, Chinese heirloom tubers) I was able to drink milk again and even eat gluten without immediate and unrectifiable problems (eg epic bloating and brain fog).

    GOOD JOB and thanks for your sharing of amazing observations.

    The besides Prescript assist, others soil based organism probiotics that I’ve used and love are listed below

    RS helps to maintain everything. The ecosystem can be somewhat frail if one has had problems earlier.

  21. Grace/Dr.BG on December 8, 2013 at 15:01


    I’m not a physicist (maybe I should call my buddy Taubes?) but RESISTANT STARCH are DNA shaped carbs. Does that make quantum sense? The energetics and molecular shapes are extraordinary. I don’t get it but I know it is inherently what sets it apart from ordinary fiber NSP and obviously glucose/fructose/FODMAPs and our own endogenously produced fucose which we make on the tips of our microvilli for the microcritters to graze on when food is lacking (between meals? when our genotypes fail to dictate like I’m FUT2(-/-) non-secretor).

    The oligosacs prebiotics are NOTHING IN COMPARISON to double helices of amylose+amylopectin. And our co-evolved dirt based creatures that live in our gut know that. They ride these dirt-covered tubers and whole grains as spores or live bacteria, traverse protected like nomads on their camels or horses across the harsh desert terrain (pH2, gastric acid, pepsin, trypsin, enzyme breakdown, harsh bile acids, detergents threaten), then finally arrive to the large intestines which lacking in oxygen like the moon however it is teaming with their desert tribes, synbionts, many lifeforms and co-feeders, grazing grounds, water and lush food everywhere…. After feasting, they go back to the soil, their home returning to their dirt tribes and land of roots, shoots, moist dirt until the next generation’s journey. It’s a circle, no?

    It’s a food science article with great visual diagrams. Richard put up an electron micrograph earlier of the bugs which ‘ride’ the starch granules, much like exotic Arabian knights LOL. OK Lawrence of Arabia movie over.

  22. […] The Most Dramatic Resistant Starch Success Story Yet | Free The Animal […]

  23. Aviel on December 8, 2013 at 02:28

    Amazing success story!

    I’m neither obese nor sick, but I decided I wanted to try this to improve my general health etc, but I have started and stopped a few times already (trying to increase the amount of Potato Starch gradually). The reason is that I get terribly bloated. Fartage isn’t as much of an issue since I didn’t take more than 1 tbsp per day yet and today I’m supposed to increase to 2 tbsp / day, but I feel like my digestion suffers greatly even from such a small dose.

    Could there be something wrong with my starch source? Is it something I just have to suffer through until the good gut bacteria prevail?
    I’m grateful for any help. I’m gonna try to soak the starch for 20 minutes just like James said, maybe it will do the trick. Cheers!

  24. Nick on December 8, 2013 at 05:02

    Hey Grace

    Thank you for the links. Nice paper and some very good information on your blog.

    What I’m most intrigued by is RS ability to enhance the survival of probiotics.

    (Wang X, Brown IL, Evans AJ, Conway PL: The protective effects of high
    amylose maize (amylomaize) starch granules on the survival of Bifido-
    bacterium spp. in the mouse intestinal tract.)

    Could other prebiotics also have this mechanism…? From your paper you linked:
    “The culture protagonist activity of oligosaccharides has not yet been explored, however, it has been reported that fructo-oligosaccharide improves the resistance of a Bifidobacterium animalis strain to bile acids when compared to glucose and fructose.”

  25. Grace/Dr.BG on December 8, 2013 at 05:24


    I think there occurred co-evolution between highly densely coiled r-starch and our beneficial synbionts. They synbionts reside in the soil and eventually they want to return to their breeding grounds. R-starch is coiled up in double helices. Sound familiar? They are very dense, sophisticated, energy molecules. Can you imagine eating your ride…? LOL ahah. The release of energy from R-starch is also very exothermic, I think, too. In an ecosystem, various ‘exchanges’ of energy occurs, no? It all starts with the sun (photons) and gets transferred up and down the food chain and throughout the soil and plants. This happens in the gut too except somewhat more elemental where there are transfers of just one or two carbons (methane) or fatty acids of 2-4 carbons (acetate, proprionate, butyrate). Different species cross-feed, fertilize and nourish one another other. It’s all so fasinating!

  26. Richard Nikoley on December 8, 2013 at 07:39


    Yep, it’s in previous posts and comments. Starch is just the granules from raw potato, about 80% RS with the other 20% being water locked inside the granules, like popcorn. Heat it, they burst, forming regular starch. Flour is made from cooked potatoes, so essentially just like eating regular cooked potatoes.

  27. Nenad Kojić on December 8, 2013 at 23:51


    I’ve had trouble wrapping my had around this resistant starch thing for a while now… I mean, I did not doubt that it works, I just had a little trouble with questioning it why it would make sense from a evolutionary stand point… i mean… sometimes tubers were not so easy to find and were not around all the time and everywhere – also, some populations, like some of the Inuit tribes, get no fiber whatsoever and seem to be faring very well…

    well, I’m not the smartest dude around, so I just stopped questioning and settled with the theory “that are microbiomes in modern times are just so out of wack because of the chems, antibiotics and other nasty stuff and RS is the fastest way to fix them”…

    this means I’ll try with 1TBS first week, then 2TBS second and so one till 4TBS or maybe more… I kind of have history of experimenting with food and my body so I guess this will be fun… Will report my findings here! ;D

    Oh… I also have one question now… I’m from Slovenia and d*mn – I just can not find “potato starch” anywhere… I found some thai-imported tapioca flour, but i guess this is not OK, as it probably went through same processing as potato flour? I don’t know… Also I am not very fond of paying 20 bucks for shipping of Bob’s Red Mill stuff to my godforsaken country… So any help here would be appreciated. Haha.

    OK, that’s it. Thanks for the awesome blog! Keep it up!
    Nenad Kojić

  28. Ellen on December 8, 2013 at 09:29


    I would try taking one of the SBO probiotics like
    Prescript Assist. I had headaches and cramping from RS and even a diet of high RS foods.

    But after only one day of the PA, no problem , and am now enjoying better sleep, though perhaps not much fun as Gabriella’s, but

    –hardly any waking,

    — and lower blood sugars with fasting in the 90s

    both things I could not achieve on years of PHD. While I did great on PHD with improvements
    In both areas, after a while, just came to think that further improvement for someone my age (71) was just asking too much. Not so.

    Thanks Tim and Richard.

  29. gabriella kadar on December 8, 2013 at 09:29

    Went to the Korean supermarket today.
    5 pounds of potato starch $11.99.
    ASSI brand,
    Imported by Rhee Bros. Inc. and Korean Farm Inc.

  30. tatertot on December 8, 2013 at 10:52

    @Nick – You are making the same mistake everyone has made for the last 50 years since the invention of ‘fiber recommendations’

    This is what clenched it for me:

    ‘ ‘Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Human Colonic Function: Roles of Resistant Starch and Nonstarch Polysaccharides’ Topping et al. described the role of RS on the health of humans and also discussed a ‘carbohydrate gap’. In calculating the need for SCFA in the human gut, they discovered that non-starch polysaccharides could only provide 25% of the SCFA requirement for optimal gut health and posited that oligosaccharides (OS) and RS were needed to fill the gap. They noted that humans need approximately 32-42g/day of fermentable fiber for SCFA production, and that FOS and other OS’ could only be utilized up to about 5g per day.”

    It’s all in here:

  31. rob on December 8, 2013 at 11:02

    Haven’t been eating the potato starch but I’ve been eating beans like crazy and also enjoying great sleep/vivid dreams.* I’ve had problems with chronic insomnia in the past so a good night’s sleep is always appreciated.

    *Had one last week where in the dream I knew I was dreaming, those are always strange, like “The Matrix.”

  32. sootedninjas on December 8, 2013 at 12:20


    “They noted that humans need approximately 32-42g/day of fermentable fiber for SCFA production, and that FOS and other OS’ could only be utilized up to about 5g per day.”

    I guess that answers my question to Heisenbug on what is the optimal FOS dosage.

    Another question I have tho is what is the difference between NutraFlora FOS and NutraFlora scFOS ?

    Unless the makers of NutraFlora decided to just brand their own FOS.

  33. Ann on December 8, 2013 at 12:31

    @ Test Subject “James” – I would bet the missing link in clearing up your diarrhea might be dairy. Have you ever given a serious try at completely giving it up for at least 12 weeks? Just as gluten is hard on the digestive tract for many people, so are dairy proteins difficult for some to digest. It is a common cause of constant diarrhea. Nobody likes to give up their creamy goodness, but the fact that you are pushing the pro-biotics so hard and still having such invasive diarrhea tells me that you are still ingesting something that doesn’t “agree” with you. I would target milk next. I had the same problem with daily diarrhea, and as soon as I stopped the dairy (I had already given up gluten, most grains, and nightshade veg) the diarrhea stopped.

    There are so many of us that reach our middle years, and start having these kinds of problems, but since we have “always” eaten something, seemingly without problems, we deny that it could be that food. Most likely, it’s not that those foods weren’t damaging us all along, its just that the damage is cumulative, and we have finally hit a point where our systems are too damaged to continue processing those foods. Even if you can “tolerate” the diarrhea, for those of us seeking optimal health, having constant diarrhea interferes with the absorption of nutrients as it pushes our food and supplements through too quickly for proper assimilation and absorption.

    Something to think about.

  34. sootedninjas on December 8, 2013 at 13:02

    FYI… interesting snippet form NutraFlora brochure

    “NUTRAFLORA consists of ß 2-1 linked linear chains of
    fructose bound to a terminal glucose. The chain length,
    or degree of polymerization (DP), varies from three to
    five. ScFOS is also found in a variety of fruits, veg-
    etables and gains.”

    “However, to get one teaspoon (~ 3
    grams) of scFOS, one would have to eat the equivalent
    of 15 onions, 22 bananas or 383 garlic cloves”

  35. tatertot on December 8, 2013 at 13:22

    @Heisenbug (I love that name, BTW),

    “In humans, RS and OS could close the carbohydrate gap (274), but consumption of OS appears to be self-limiting due to osmotic effects and may contribute only 5–10 g/day. Direct evidence that a physiologically significant amount of starch reached the terminal ileum (and could enter the colon) was shown in intubated volunteers (283). Substantial quantities of starch (and other macronutrients) were found in ileal effluent after consumption of certain foods such as beans and high amylose starch. Thus, in a highly digestible food such as white bread, only 2.8% of available carbohydrate (i.e., starch) appeared in the effluent compared with 13.8% with lentils and 22.6% with high amylose bread (279). The fiber content of the food was found to be an important determinant of digestibility, and greater fiber content also increased ileal protein losses. Muir et al. (209) compared high and low RS meals and showed that of meals containing ∼52 g of starch, ∼4% (1 g) was undigested with low RS food and 48% (25 g) with high RS food”

    Also, in study, do a ctrl-F search for ‘potato’ then look at all the references to how raw potato starch is a superior butyrate producer than the other starches…

    I’m pretty sure it will turn out the RS, specifically RS from potatoes and plantains, is needed more than any other fermentable fiber.

  36. rob on December 8, 2013 at 14:05

    Imo the difference is whether we are talking about linked chains of FOS in which case 25g is overdoing it, or unlinked chains of sfGOS in which case you are just scratching the surface, you have to consider the nutrient partitioning effects of the RS-FOS protocol which provides that no more than 10g shall be ingested in a post-GOS state which means that if you are ingesting 15g prior to BOS then you are making the biggest mistake of your life, you cannot possibly achieve your result, am I talking to children or what? Are you guys making it up as you go along?

  37. gabriella kadar on December 8, 2013 at 15:12

    Grace, in re: the Korean fermented soybean paste (mine is plain, not with red pepper): there’s only so much a person can eat. The potato starch really blunts the appetite as well. I know in some parts of Japan people eat natto for breakfast every morning but is that really necessary? I’ve got both the natto and the soybean paste at home (always) but don’t eat either that frequently. What would you suggest as reasonable? Once per week, twice per week? For some reason, natto really blunts appetite as well. Not because it’s gross. Probably same reason as potato starch: the beans are not heated and have been frozen.

    Mind you, today when I was at the Korean supermarket my focus has shifted to ‘hm, does that have resistant starch? Does that have fructo-oligosaccharides? ….. Nameko mushrooms… mushrooms, mushrooms….’ OMG I’ve been assimilated!

  38. gabriella kadar on December 8, 2013 at 15:18

    @ sootninjas: maybe that’s why the 30 Bananas a day freak is still alive: his guts make short chain fatty acids. LOL!

  39. Richard Nikoley on December 8, 2013 at 15:21


    Great food for thought on dairy. Thanks.

  40. James on December 8, 2013 at 15:45

    @ Ann:

    Yes indeed, I did give up dairy. I literally do not remember the last time I drank a glass of milk and it’s only since April have I added the occasional bit of heavy cream to my morning kefir and the occasional slice of real cheddar to, say, an omelet or a breadless burger. I believe my gut was badly damaged due to the copious amounts of bad food I ate for many years. My robust rotundity required almost five decades to complete, a work of art requiring more than a few months to undo.

    I will now start reducing the amount of potato starch, the green powder, etc., to see at what point I still need such supplementation, if any at all. It is probable the potato starch I have been ingesting has actually been working and it was just taking time to show the results; the sudden doubling of starch may only have been that spark needed to take the process over the finish line.

    The data on Nikoley’s blog says up to 60 gm of starch will be metabolized by the gut bugs but with no apparent increase in utility if larger amounts are used. The 8 tbls (approx. 100 gm) I’ve been using for the last three weeks represents 80 gm of usable starch so 25% is basically wasted. Heck, it could be the excess starch may result in constipation.

    FYI: I’ve got three experiments running. One is some pinto beans in the process of being sprouted, re: Sally Fallon’s “Nourishing Traditions” book. Experiment 2 is pinto beans, soaked and cooked, sitting in a fermentation broth of water, salt, and kefir whey. The third experiment is a cup of cooked rice fermenting in water, salt, and kefir whey. I’m interested in the effects these foods will have on my blood glucose and if there will be any noticeable effect on my gut. (I know sprouted pinto beans are delicious because I tried some several years ago. What I don’t know is if fermented pinto beans or fermented rice is edible. I’m sure other societies have used them but I don’t know if my American tongue will find them palatable.)

  41. Richard Nikoley on December 8, 2013 at 15:56

    “am I talking to children or what? Are you guys making it up as you go along?”

    Oh go fuck off, rob.

    Don’t try to channel me. I am very precise when I go off on people. It’s about shit they ought to know as competent humans, like brute force and all manner of other things where people submit to authority.

    You’re all on about a huge bunch of acronyms involving Fructo Oligosacharides, which you didn’t spell out once.

    Don’t be like that. You can’t shit on people for all ignorance, only ignorance they objectively ought not be ignorant about,

    Be just, Rob, even when using the c-word.

  42. Grace/Dr.BG on December 8, 2013 at 16:47


    I don’t know what exactly blunts appetite but for certain the microbial by-products and microbes themselves alter the gut hormone, GLP, leptin and post meal insulin, no?

    We eat the gochukang couple times a month when we are doing bibimbap (not much in the summer) but the Koreans seriously eat all kinds of fermented pickles, meat, seafood at nearly every meal. Real kim chee has RAW SQUID IN IT ;)

    Our guts are like compost — did you see this my lady (Hey Richard??!) ?

    Tito RY, Knights D, Metcalf J, Obregon-Tito AJ, Cleeland L, et al. (2012) Insights from Characterizing Extinct Human Gut Microbiomes. PLoS ONE 7(12): e51146.

    Will love to blog soon about fossilized feces, dino doo, petrified poop~~!!!!!

    Goes along well with RS enriched dirt covered tubers, pollen and other yummmy ancient nibbles…


  43. Grace/Dr.BG on December 8, 2013 at 16:54

    For Bea and you, did you see this one?

    “Man’s best friend? The effect of pet ownership on house dust microbial communities — dog owner’s housedust more enriched and diverse”

    Dust from households with dogs was significantly richer (p=0.04) and more diverse (p=0.04) compared with those without pets… while the majority of D [DOG OWNERS] and some C samples resided in G1. G1 samples were significantly richer (p=0.008), more even (p=0.002), and more diverse (p<0.001) compared with G2 samples and exhibited the presence of 757 taxa in significantly higher abundance (Table E3), representing the phyla Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes and Verrucomicrobia.

  44. Grace/Dr.BG on December 8, 2013 at 17:12


    Gut 101 — the barriers to survival of bacteria/fungi in the gut are gastric acid, enzymatic degradation and the detergent action of bile acids. Actually this is true for many proteins like insulin too. We never give patients who need insulin a pill for insulin, right? It’s because insulin is a small protein and will instant get broken down by either acid, enzymes or bile. We’re omnivores — we eat everything. Protein, fat, carbs. We are thoroughly equiped to harvest the energy bonds out of each and all of these nutrient energy sources (which ultimately are from the sun’s energy= photons, right?).

    Insulin can only be adminstered only two ways — IV or snort. Well the snorting didn’t work. The breathing of insulin particles caused a host of reactions and immune triggering as you can imagine. This was an example of one of the shortest lived, stupidest Pharma experiments ever.

    We’d have the same problems with our microflora too if it werent for spore-based bacteria/fungi and RESISTANT STARCH GRANULES from those dirt-encrusted potatoes, roots, rhizomes and tubers. lol Well we do snort a bit of this if you’re gardening and working in fields. Otherwise if you are eating them (or licking my butt) the oral by mouth route of administration do work. Want to stand in line? JK

  45. Ellen on December 9, 2013 at 08:33

    An interesting fact re the cooking of beans

    Cook with the top off for firmer beans , with the top on, but slightly ajar, for creamier ones


  46. Carl on December 8, 2013 at 17:46

    Dr.BG, you win the internet. :-)

  47. Richard Nikoley on December 8, 2013 at 20:56

    “’ OMG I’ve been assimilated!”

    What did I write in my very first post? Resistance is Futile.


  48. Richard Nikoley on December 8, 2013 at 21:28


    I won’t take you seriously until you you give me the slightest hint of accounting for the roughly 50 studies I’ve summarized in the series. About 12 in one blog, about 35 in another. I’m guessing you’ve not read either.

    You are wasting people’s time and I’m ignoring you until you come to account.

    I firmly believe that you do not care about anyone but toppling what has been accomplished here.

    You have an enemy.

  49. colin nelson henley on December 8, 2013 at 23:33

    I love how you stir the pot sir, and always enjoy the results. ‘kraut on the go, kombucha in the fridge. trying RS next.

  50. colin nelson henley on December 8, 2013 at 23:42

    well, given what I’ve read about microbiome=brain health…. how are your air miles? heh :)

  51. GW on December 9, 2013 at 03:37

    I finally found Bob’s Red Mill unmodified potato starch in Holland and I ordered it two days ago. I got a call today and, get this, they told me it’s on back order :D !

    Regarding the milk being a contributing factor to the dhiarrea or not. I”m wondering if James used raw milk for his milk kefir. I was never able to tolerate milk at all. One glass of milk would make me cough up mucus for about half an hour. As a child I was allergic to milk and it induced bronchitis.

    Then I started consuming raw milk from a good, local, organic farm, either it’s in pure form or via milk kefir. No problemo. Nothing. Not even one cough.

    I sometimes wonder if people who are really lactose-intolerant are simply intolerant to pasteurized milk full of antibiotics, puss (there is about one thimble puss in one litre of milk from chronically inflamed udders yummy) and without the enzyme lactase, or that they are really intolerant to milk. The farm I get my milk from also puts unrefined sea salt (no joke!) in the feed of the animals which improved their health considerably.

    Greetings from Holland! ;-)

    • akker on November 14, 2020 at 17:14

      I am from holland to.
      What i don’t understand is why you look for Bob’s Red Mill unmodified potato starch..
      What is wrong with aardappelzetmeel van Honig?
      They sell it in every supermarket.


      • Richard Nikoley on November 16, 2020 at 14:10

        Because this blog’s readership is about 80-90% US-based.

  52. Al on December 9, 2013 at 03:43

    “Otherwise if you are eating them (or licking my butt) the oral by mouth route of administration do work.”

    Most bestest comment by anyone, anywhere, ever.

    I’m trying to get my girlfriend to understand that she needs my healthy gut bugs – its a win/win situation :)

  53. pzo on December 9, 2013 at 04:49

    @ James, OP: Great story, but please note that kefir IS dairy. While not having much of the milk sugars left, it has all of the whey and casein proteins, I’m sure. I’m six years older, same weight, a tad taller than you and have been RS’ing for months. Still have fluctuating stools, but overall, much better on RS. About your various numbers, I would “kill” for them! But then, six years ago at your age, I had them w/o doing anything.

    Cinnamon definitely helps BS, there is at least on peer reviewed article on it. The amount of cinnamon you are consuming, I doubt it would have much, if any, effect. For direct consumption more than a bit of flavoring, yes, it is important to use Ceylonese. The cheaper, universal cinnamon has a toxic chemical in it. (Sorry, I don’t recall the name of either the species or the chemical.) However, the latter is not water solvable – I did my chemistry research on this – so teas are OK. When I was drinking a quart of tasty cinnamon tea a day I did see a BG reduction, but it was annoying to make and drink and the improvement minimal.

    @gabriella: What a hoot! I’ve always, and still do at my age, have “those” kinds of dreams. But in hindsight, yes, maybe more intense than before my RS regimen. Not having a woman in my life makes those dreams not so welcome, darn it! Maybe this is why a certain bean eating culture to our south has a high birthrate? :) “Psst… awake?”

    An observation on farting: Obviously, this is very, very natural. It is only a social construct which tells us it is bad. Which leads to the observation that most of us grew up with the corollary that beans must be an inferior food because they make you fart a lot. Now, it turns out that all they are doing is making us healthier!

    Our bodies. So complicated. And inconsistent.

  54. Richard Nikoley on December 9, 2013 at 07:44


    Note that the carb count is for when it’s cooked. Raw it’s 20% water so 8T is about 60g RS.

  55. DuckDodgers on December 9, 2013 at 07:52


    Found something very cool…

    Turns out that the “traditional” preparation of potatoes in Ireland was to only scald the outside of the potatoes and eat the centers raw.

    Here is an observation from 1856, by Henry Colman, honorary member of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, the National Agricultural Society of France, and of the National Agricultural Society of The United States.

    From: Agriculture and Rural Economy: From Personal Observation, 1856, (Page 363), by Henry Colman

    “In Ireland, deemed of all other countries the adopted home of the potato, I was seldom able to find one that was even eatable. This arose, however, not from the quality of the root, but from the mode of cooking — the Irish always desiring, to use their own expression, “to have a stone in the middle;” so that the aim of the cook was only to boil, or rather scald, the outside of the potato, and leave the inside as hard as when it went into the pot. The advantage of this, as gravely stated to me, was that they were longer in digestion, and therefore gave more support. This may be sound philosophy in Ireland, where the stomachs of the poor find an equal difficulty in getting, as they do in keeping what they get. It would be inhuman to treat the extreme destitution of these poor wretches with any levity; but I found this mode of cooking prevailing also at the tables of the rich and noble; and after seeing such an abuse of one of the most useful and nutritious plants which come out of the earth, I was half inclined to advise them to try a few granite pebbles of a size to pass through a McAdam ring, and see whether they would not serve the digestive organs still longer. It was a curiosity to me in London, likewise, to see them selling in the market, by the quart, the small, not half grown, not quartergrown potatoes, not even so large as cherries, and many not larger than peas, and these were bought up as luxuries. I should quite as soon think of sitting down to a dish of boiled bullets, or duck shot; and I should suppose with almost equal chance of nourishment. If it were such potatoes only, at which Cobbett launched his anathemas, one would not be surprised at his indignation.”

    I found this fascinating. I could have sworn that the few millimeters near the potato’s skin — and including the skin — is where most of the potato toxins (the green Solanine for instance) concentrate and need to be cooked and/or peeled away to render it “safe”. This preparation of scalded potatoes seems like it would give one the best of both worlds — perhaps lower toxins and more RS.

    I’m not sure if you’ve ever noticed, but when you slice a raw potato open, the center looks slightly different from the outside. The raw inside is a little more pliable than the raw outside.

    I think most people think of potatoes as either being only raw or cooked. But, here we have evidence of people choosing to extend their digestions by doing a little of both. I wonder if having a “stone in the middle” is somewhat tasty or if that was just a hack that the Irish figured out? Either way, I think that’s some of the clearest evidence of a traditional culture actively choosing to consume RS and recognizing benefits from it.

  56. DuckDodgers on December 9, 2013 at 07:54

    My apologies, but I forgot to include the correct source link. Here it is:

    Agriculture and Rural Economy: From Personal Observation, 1856, (Page 363), by Henry Colman

  57. Heisenbug on December 9, 2013 at 08:04


    I’ve read them all. Been following this as closely as anyone, I think! Not sure what’s in there to contradict what I’ve said — simply that we haven’t tested RS against another fermentable fiber, short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), that’s been shown to have sometimes superior/different/complementary effects. That short-chain part seems to make it a totally different animal compared to the other FOS’s & Oligo’s. The studies you link all tout the benefits of RS. And I agree with all of it.

    Toppling? No way. Building on it is my hope. You’re right in that most people probably need to just go down the RS/PS road right now, since it’s proven/beneficial/easy, but hey, some of us need to stay ahead of the curve and keep experimenting, no? My guess is there’s an ideal combo, and RS alone isn’t the final answer. Perhaps my last post made it seem too much like I was trying to say RS is a waste of time. I seriously hope not.

  58. Richard Nikoley on December 9, 2013 at 08:25

    Ok, Heisenbug. Just don’t break bad on us. :)

  59. DuckDodgers on December 9, 2013 at 09:06

    Ah… This article seems to confirm that the potato toxins and antinutrients/enzyme inhibitors are found on the outside of the potato, near the peel.

    Which leads me to believe that the traditional Irish scalding of potatoes (with a “stone in the middle”) is probably a very ideal way to prepare them.

  60. […] "Dr. BG" answers that question in comments, edited […]

  61. Katie on December 9, 2013 at 09:21

    I’ve just begun week two of my PS experiment. Took 1 TBSP per day last week, either mixed in with yogurt at home or in a glass of water when travelling (I packed my few TBSP of PS needed to get me through the trip in a tupperware container, and I kept laughing because I figured the hotel staff probably thought I was snorting coke or something). Lots of gas, as expected. One interesting thing that someone else mentioned is that I swear I feel fuller more quickly and am eating less food–I lost 4 pounds last week eating ad libitum and not trying to change my diet in any way. I also noticed that when I did splurge by, for example, having a piece of cheesecake at a work dinner on Wednesday night, I felt incredibly uncomfortable and disgusting. I skipped dessert entirely at Thursday night’s dinner as a result. I also have been wanting much smaller portions of meat – probably about 3 ounces instead of my usual 5 or 6. Upped my dose two 2 TBSP starting this morning and will continue to ramp up week-by-week until I hit 4 TBSP per day. No crazy dreams yet, but I have felt more refreshed when I wake up in the morning.

  62. Maxim on December 9, 2013 at 09:28

    At one of my recent PS induced crazy dreams I sucked coffee from woman’s breast… Beat that. :>

  63. Tatertot on December 9, 2013 at 09:34

    @DuckDodgers –you come up with the coolest stuff! Thanks. Back when I was just trying to source RS from food, my go-to trick was to eat a couple slices of raw potato and boil them til very hard in center. We also toyed around with sous-vide potatoes cooked under 140 degress with a bit of success.

    @Katie – The hunger issue is not surprising, lots of studies key in on certain hunger hormones called GLP-1, PYY, and Leptin, and they are all gut modulated. I think we have all become desensitized to the effect of hunger hormones because we eat on set schedules rather than to hunger.

    @Maxim – Stay away from Grace…she’s a bad influence on you. ‘Beat that’ yourself….

  64. Katie on December 9, 2013 at 09:53

    Thanks for replying, Tatertot. Yeah, I totally agree regarding eating on a schedule rather than to hunger. It’s just amazing to me that, within days, adding 1 TBSP of ANY substance to my diet could impart such a large change. I was at a work conference Wed-Fri where they were constantly putting food out, and I was also going out to dinner at night. Usually I would eat whatever was there just because it was there and usually tasted good – pastries, cookies, etc. It was all still there, and I had a little bit, so I can tell you it still tasted good. But I just didn’t want much of it anymore! That is completely life-changing for me because I know I should eat less and eat better, but I often found highly paletable food, particularly baked good, nearly impossible to resist (or if I did resist one thing, I’d probably end up eating twice as much of something worse later to make up for it). Big pharma will never win this battle because they’re going to focus on the individual hormones and trying to create blockers or amplifiers. That will always miss the larger picture. We are much more bacteria than we are human. Feed the microbes, and they will do everything for you. Thank you, Richard and Tatertot for experimenting with this and putting it out there. It’s still early, but I am very excited!

  65. gabriella kadar on December 9, 2013 at 10:28

    Ducky, that’s really interesting.

    Last year I read all of ‘The History and Social Influence of the Potato’ by Salamon and honestly, I do not recall ever reading what you’ve quoted above. Either it wasn’t reported or I missed it but it’s something hard to miss. Now, mind you, a book about the potato is not always the most riveting.

  66. DuckDodgers on December 9, 2013 at 10:51

    Now I’m curious about the nutritional content of an underdone potato. According to (as well as other resources) a raw potato has over 100% of the RDA for Vitamin C! Whereas a cooked potato has less than half the RDA for Vitamin C (not too shabby either). Nevertheless, that’s a significant reduction likely due to the oxidation via cooking.

    I assume the Vitamin C is completely oxidized in potato starch. So, it makes me wonder if there is perhaps a little added benefit from consuming a “stone in the middle” of potato that makes it more complete.

    I’m going out on a limb here, but has anyone ever noticed that the very center of the potato is ever so slightly hollow inside sometimes? Anyone know if it is at all possible that there are microbes in there or anything else (enzymes or something of that nature) in the center of the potato that is optimally kept raw and fresh? I suppose no one has ever studied the potato that closely, but it would be interesting to get the microbiome of a raw potato — if it exists. :)

    Sorry for the ramblings. I’m still enjoying my PS every day, but just trying to piece together evidence of cultures that may have chose to consume extra RS.

  67. Richard Nikoley on December 9, 2013 at 12:34

    “I assume the Vitamin C is completely oxidized in potato starch.”

    No. Once again, for the one millionth, bazzilionth time: potato starch is made from raw potatoes, in water, sieved.

    The C may have washed away, but it has not been oxidized.

  68. gabriella kadar on December 9, 2013 at 14:52

    Nenad, according to google translate, potato starch in Slovenian is krompirjev škrob. Google might be wrong. I know what it is in Hungarian but that might not help you. In Polish it’s skrobia ziemniaczana.

  69. Mark on December 9, 2013 at 15:57

    Bob’s Red Mill Potato Starch was sold out at the Whole Foods and Sprouts in Santa Clarita, CA yesterday. Must be a significant amount of readers down here.

  70. gabriella kadar on December 9, 2013 at 18:01

    I suppose whipped up frozen wild blueberries with lactose free milk (no kefir today) and raw potato starch would contribute the fructooligosaccharides as well.

  71. Rob A on December 9, 2013 at 20:41

    Has anyone noticed cold hands or feet with the RS protocol? I’ve been doing this for about a week now, starting with 1 tbsp/day and now taking about 3 tbsp/day. The past two days I’ve had cold feet – it is really strange as I’ve never had this before. I’ve had much improved bowel movement over the last week but haven’t noticed any other changes yet.

  72. Jeff on December 10, 2013 at 06:11

    @Rob A – I’ve found the exact opposite regarding my hands and feet. It makes wearing dress socks & shoes at work a bit uncomfortable. If I have any complaints, it’s that this RS protocol is making me have some odor issues in my shoes by the time I get home from work. I’ve had to start putting dryer sheets in the shoes to keep it down. Too much information?

  73. La Frite on December 10, 2013 at 06:23

    @Rob A
    Quite the opposite. I never had cold feet and hands issues before (unlike my wife), but adding raw PS makes me even warmer in general. I can be the whole day without eating and yet, feel warm all the time with 2-3 Tbsp of PS mixed in water in the early morning (7-8am). Sometimes, I feel really warm during my sleep (I take some in the evening as well) and since most of my protein in take occurs in the evening, you can be sure I have no coldness issue at bed time …

  74. Ellen on December 10, 2013 at 09:14

    What about seaweed For FOS?

  75. Todd on December 10, 2013 at 11:05

    Third day on potato starch yesterday and it was the first day doing 4T, two in the morning and two at night. I haven’t been sleeping great for the past two weeks, but I had one of Gabriella’s dreams last night. Gut microbes must like it a little freaky. It’s a good thing I only take cold showers.

    Also, reporting zero increase in flatulence. Better feeling of fullness, too, which has never been an issue, but I feel good to go longer than my usual 10-1 first meal of the day.

    I’ll keep reporting any interesting findings if it helps.

  76. […] when taking potato starch at night before bedtime. Longtime commenter, Dr. Gabriella Kadar, has newly discovered X-Rated Dreams, just in case anyone might be interested in that sort of […]

  77. pip on December 11, 2013 at 15:28

    Grace. I was nearly signing up for that. Careful!!!!!!

  78. DuckDodgers on December 11, 2013 at 19:44


    The good news is that I did find other references that mention the Irish “stone in the middle” of a potato…

    From: Journal of the Society of Arts, (1884) Volume 32

    For the same reason raw salads are better than boiled vegetables of similar composition, unless the water in which they are boiled is used as a potage or soupe maitre. The Irish demand for “a stone in the middle” of his potato may be due to the better retention of the potash by the under-cooked tuber.

    However most cookery books and recipes aimed for taste and digestibility, so the stone was often avoided on paper…

    From: The Ladies’ Repository, (1870) Volume 5; Volume 30, J.F. Wright and L. Swormstedt

    In order insure perfect digestion it must be finely divided, and to facilitate this it is important that the cooked potato should be light and mealy. Different kinds of potatoes require different kinds of treatment to effect this, but the main points are to cook them quickly, not to let them stop boiling, and not have them overdone. Nothing will secure these results but close watchfulness. I do not leave a “stone in the middle.” It very indigestible. But the water must be turned off before they fall to pieces, some say as quick as they cease to slip from the fork, and they may be returned uncovered to a gentle heat until they are somewhat dried out.

    Interestingly, both authors put their own “” quotes around the phrase stone in the middle. So, it was definitely a phrase in the lexicon.

  79. DuckDodgers on December 13, 2013 at 07:44

    Ok… here’s a photo of my “stone in the middle”:

    I’m only going to eat half of it this morning, because I don’t really ever take more than 2 Tbsp of PS at a time and don’t think I want to try getting more RS than that at once.

    It doesn’t taste that great, even if I dress it up with a little raw honey and salt. It’s leaving a very slight bitter and burning taste in my mouth — very similar to the effect you get when you chew arugula. It would probably be better with sour cream, but I don’t have any at the moment.

    I cooked the entire potato in boiling water for ~5 minutes to get that effect. But, the texture is surprisingly easy to chew — it’s extremely similar to eating cauliflower.

    I’m sure someone who is a better cook than I can figure out how to play with that arugula-like taste.

  80. Grace/Dr.BG on December 12, 2013 at 18:58


    GIVE ME UR POO~!!!!! As Richard says ‘resistance is futile’

    lol ahaa

  81. gabriella kadar on December 12, 2013 at 19:15

    Ducky, you are finding good stuff. Have you ever cooked potatoes with ‘the stone in the middle’? Last time I made a potato salad ONE of the potatoes didn’t cook through. I guess if all the potatoes were the same, then it would have been fine. But the harder chunks were unexpected and unwelcome. Next time I’ll make them all the same. I will adjust my expectations.

  82. DuckDodgers on December 12, 2013 at 20:08

    @gabriella, I haven’t done it yet. Might try it tomorrow. I remember Tatertot saying that a raw potato has 25g of RS2 per 100g. So, seems like I could get most of my RS for the day with just a single stone from a big potato. Sounds too simple.

    I might slice it up and eat it with a few dabs of honey — not unlike an apple? After all it is a pomme (“apple”) + de (“from”) + terre (“earth”).

  83. Richard Nikoley on December 13, 2013 at 07:55


    Interesting you mention that arugula taste. How about chop up and dress it with an EVOO/balsamic vinaigrette, or google around for salad dressing recipes that go great with arugula?

    Never stop experimenting. This could be kinda big, for those who prefer to chew rather than just down a powder.

    Very interested to see BG over time results comparing a fully cooked boiled tater vs. this.

  84. Richard Nikoley on December 13, 2013 at 07:56

    …And also, the size of the “stone” can be varied to taste as well.

  85. DuckDodgers on December 13, 2013 at 08:01

    Apparently there are a lot of recipes for raw potato salads. There’s even a restaurant in Hawaii that is known for it…

  86. DuckDodgers on December 13, 2013 at 08:13

    Very interested to see BG over time results comparing a fully cooked boiled tater vs. this.

    Would also be interesting to see if gas is reduced from raw whole potatoes, but I won’t be able to tell since I don’t really get much gas with PS anyhow.

  87. DuckDodgers on December 13, 2013 at 08:16

    Sorry…. I meant the possibility of having reduced gas from “stone in the middle” taters, not raw whole potatoes.

  88. tatertot on December 13, 2013 at 08:21

    @DD – If you search for the ‘diabetic mashed potato’ blog, I did a take on sous-vide spuds. Basically, I cooked them for about 60 minutes at 140 degrees, sliced, spiced and ate. Checked BG–no effect with 1 full pound. They weren’t bad, either.

  89. Ellen on December 13, 2013 at 09:58

    That might actually be tasty!

  90. Ellen on December 13, 2013 at 09:59

    Meaning the raw potato salad
    Duck linked to…..

  91. DuckDodgers on December 13, 2013 at 10:09

    @tatertot, I did see that. I sort of feel like there’s a tiny difference between slight denaturing of whatever at 140º and a rather raw center. But, I don’t really know anything about that — just wondering out loud.

    In any case, I can attest that my stomach does feel different with the underdone potato. There’s a faint gnawing sensation in my stomach, but it’s very mild and hardly noticeable — feels almost somewhat medicinal. Could just be my imagination though.

  92. DuckDodgers on December 13, 2013 at 13:02

    I’m pretty sure I got some solonine toxicity in that underdone potato. The burning is indicative of solonine. Hope I did get too much.

  93. […] @livinlowcarbman … This one too: […]

  94. DuckDodgers on December 13, 2013 at 18:35

    So.. I’m going to suggest that people not try eating a “stone in the middle” that big. I think I felt some mild solanine toxicity effects today. Burning sensation in the mouth, bitter tasting, gnawing of the stomach, a very large and strange bowel movement and some woozy feelings. Weird since solanine is usually concentrated near the peel. Hard to tell how much of it was in my head, but not something I want to play around with again. I took some activated charcoal and I think that helped.

    I’m not convinced the Irish “stone in the middle” was an ideal way healthy way to eat a potato — at least not the way I did it. My guess is that people who were going hungry knew it was a hack to keep them feeling full longer.

    I used a Russet and for all we know, a fresh Irish Lumper would have done better. But, I’m not going to try it again. I’ll keep looking around for other cultures who ate raw(ish) tubers, but I think I’ll stick to Bob’s Red Mill for now. :)

  95. Richard Nikoley on December 13, 2013 at 19:54


    There you go. I’d imagine there’s some balance. Dose makes the poison.

    • Stuart+Mather on October 21, 2014 at 05:19

      Just read the entire thread over two evenings. Absolutely fascinating. Thanks everyone. For a rivetting read and for all the work you’ve all done. Now at the end of my first week of PS ing. It’s certainly a game changer for me.
      But I can’t be bothered with either the BRM stuff or the expensive SBO supplements. Not that I doubt their efficacy. I’m just tight, potatoes are cheap in Australia, and there’s a lot of dirt in the world, including my backyard. I remember Richard noting some really impressive specs for the SBO’s in just one cup of dirt.
      So this is what I do. Anyone feel free to shoot it down if it’s misguided. I just make a smoothie twice a day with peeled raw potato on the 25g RS / 100g raw potato to get the 40 g RS (so 20g per smoothie) with a tbsp psyllium husk that I’ve soaked for at least a few hours to hydrate it , a raw egg yolk, various tasty stuff like cacao powder, and the strained liquid from a couple of tbspns of dirt from various parts of my garden that’s soaked in water in the fridge for a day. I have two dogs.
      A couple of questions. Do I need to smash up the raw potatoes first in the blender and strain off the liquid to remove the solanine, or will just peeling them be sufficient? I haven’t ever noticed any nightshade intolerance.
      The dirt water doesn’t seem to impart any adverse flavours to the smoothie. So maybe that Japanese restaurateur is on a winner.
      Also, one of the stalwarts, I can’t remember who, maybe Dr BG, commented waay back that RS without NSP’s and FOS’s “…doesn’t do shit…”
      Or is including the Psyllium Husk enough?
      My gut bugs are in awe of you all.

  96. I'm begining to suspect Primal is a joke - Page 5 | Mark's Daily Apple Health and Fitness Forum page 5 on January 19, 2014 at 13:25

    […] and steadier energy and warmth when I added more RS to my diet. Dr. BG wrote on Richard's blog The Most Dramatic Resistant Starch Success Story Yet | Free The Animal about why RS is special, and someone posted in the RS thread that RS appears to feed certain […]

  97. […] Here’s that post: The Most Dramatic Resistant Starch Success Story Yet. […]

  98. Reactive Hypoglycemia on February 25, 2016 at 20:32

    […] example, the resistant starch is not metabolized to glucose. You might find more info about this on freetheanimal. They have several articles about resistant starch. Just gotta be prepared for the shock of the […]

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