Thinking Out Loud: Resistant Starch in Beans vs. Soaking Beans

Alright, here’s the brain teaser.

So, since the beginning of this Resistant Starch Revolution, I was in San Jose all the time and did all the cooking of beans. And like a dutiful respecter of Wise Traditions methods, I always soaked them (mom and grand moms did too, when I was a kid). On the other hand, my Mexican-heritage mother-in-law scoffs. Mexicans apparently dump their beans in a pot, add water and cook them. Side note: they always taste far better than my soaked ones (soaking liquid discarded) and make way better refried beans.

Now that I’m away about half the time, Beatrice cooks her own beans—just like her mom taught her.

So here’s the deal. My beans? Little to no fartage. Bea’s beans? Substantial fartage, unless you eat them daily, in which case—for me at least—it subsides.

Remind you of anything?

Hypothesis: soaking beans ferments them to where certain bacteria strains pre-consume various fibers (including the RS2) and the by-product is the bubbles you see on top of your soaking liquid that you discard and that don’t end up in your colon where said by-products are available to co-feeders and whatever else benefit you might get. Alternatively, or both, soaking activates certain enzymatic processes whereby RS2 is consumed, much as it is in the ripening of a green banana that’s full of RS2; but that’s what fuels ripening such than when it’s yellow, little to no more RS.

Alright, theorize away. Destroy my hypothesis if you can. After all, the only thing I can ever be truly certain about is when I’m absolutely wrong.

What ought I call this? How about: The Pre-Farted Beans Hypothesis? The gasses end up in the air you breathe, not in your colon where they do the most good.

Update: a Twitter follower sent along this: Soaking the common bean in a domestic preparation reduced the contents of raffinose-type oligosaccharides but did not interfere with nutritive value.


The objective of this study was to verify the effect of soaking on the factors causing flatulence in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) cv. IAC-Carioca during domestic preparation. A biological assay using recently weaned (21 days) male Wistar rats provided the Food Conversion Efficiency (FCE) and the Net Protein Ratio (NPR). Five treatments were carried out with isocaloric (350.9 +/- 37.9 kcal/100 g) and isoprotein (12.0 +/- 0.5%) experimental diets, with the following protein sources: beans cooked without soaking (BNS), beans soaked and cooked with the soaking water (BSWW), beans soaked and cooked without the residual soaking water (BSNW), control diet (casein) (CC), casein plus the total soluble solids found in the soaking water (CSS) for comparative purposes, and an aproteic diet (AP) for corrective purposes, all diets offered ad libitum. The contents of raffinose-type oligosaccharides were determined in the different domestic preparations of the beans. Significant reductions were observed in the contents of the oligosaccharides raffinose (25.0%), stachyose (24.8%), and verbascose (41.7%), and in the contents of total sugars (80.6%), reducing sugars (58.2%), nonreducing sugars (90.3%), and starch (26.8%) when soaking took place before cooking and elimination of the soaking water not absorbed by the beans (BSNW) was used. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the values for FCE and NPR of the control diet (casein) and control diet plus soaking water soluble solids. Neither was any significant difference between the values for the different bean treatments found, though the values for FCE and NPR were lower than those obtained for casein treatments. Thus it was verified that although the domestic preparation of the common bean significantly reduced the contents of raffinose-type oligosaccharides, total reducing and nonreducing sugars and starch, it did not interfere with its nutritive value.

“[D]id not interfere with nutritive value.” Well, at least not for the human cell 10% of us. :)

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  1. Tom on September 30, 2014 at 09:14

    Hey richard. I’ve been following the paleo blogosphere for about 4 years now and always find myself stumbling back on your blog. Entertaining and enlightening and I love reading about people who like to experiment. On that topic and the topic of resistant starch(although not related to beans), have you done much with green bananas? At first I was averse in light of their texture, but i’ve since come around. When you freeze green bananas, then let them thaw a bit, either at room temp or a quick burst in the microwave, the bananas are delicious and almost like ice cream, but (as my flatulence and increased satiety indicates) retain the resistant starch. There is also a company in austrailia that manufactures a green banana flour ) that claims to be half resistant starch by mass. I’ve since introduced green bananas, frozen then thawed briefly in the microwave, topped with maybe a teaspoon of maple syrup over like 4 bananas, and it is the most delicious 2 minute snack that i’ve ever had. Would like to hear your experience with them.

    • Richard Nikoley on October 1, 2014 at 07:01

      I actually like the taste of green banana. Have never been much of a ripe banana fan. Also, I use them in smoothies. I’d be weary of nuking them, though if you fart, perhaps it’s not enough to pop the RS granules.

    • Bret on October 2, 2014 at 06:19

      I am a fan of green bananas myself. Always found the ripe ones to be too sweet and texture too mushy. Almost a gag effect for me.

      Yesterday I consumed my first green plantain, and that sure was an experience. The unripened flesh kind of coated my mouth and teeth, and it was very difficult to finish. Anyone got experience/advice along this path?

  2. David on September 30, 2014 at 13:44

    Just prior to reading your post I was browsing my recent web clippings/snippets (am livin’ on the edge!) which included the following:


    Journal: Marisela Granito, Glenda Alvarez. J Sci Food Agric 86:1164, 1171 (2006).

    To make beans safe and healthy (and less gassy) requires lactic acid fermentation, the same process that turns cabbage into sauerkraut and kimchi…

    With beans, it’s very easy to do. Simply place the beans in puke-warm water and let them soak at room temperature for 12-48 hours. Nearly every dry bean in the world has lactobacillus bacteria on t naturally; they’re attracted there by mysterious receptors. When you soak them in warm water, the lactobacillus revives and rapidly multiplies. As the beans swell, the lactobacillus invades the cells of the beans and produces lactic acid which changes the environment (pH, etc…) to favor its own growth and not the growth of bad bacteria (e. coli, etc…) Read through the paper to see the dozens of changes that occur with fermentation, but mainly insoluble finer is converted to resistant starch, protein is more digestible, vitamins/minerals are made available, anti-nutrients are dissolved, and gas producing carbs are decreased (raffinose, for instance).

    After a long soak, you should see bubbles on the surface of the water and notice a slight sourdough smell. If it smells nasty, throw it out and start over. Rinse the beans well and cover with water. Bring to a rapid boil and let boil for 10 full minutes, this will destroy mot of any anti-nutrients. Let the beans simmer for 1-2 hours until tender. You can boil the beans in plain water, salted water, or even more broths for more flavour.”

    Here’s the article:

  3. FrenchFry on September 30, 2014 at 12:11

    I just saw the update and I was about to mention raffinose. From what Tim Steele and others have said, I understood that the stuff that makes us fart is the fermentation of raffinose.

    You know, it reminds me of inulin. When I was on potato starch, I quickly came out of the farting phase. Later on, I decided to supplement on inulin instead because unlike many, I can’t really stand the taste of raw PS. So, inulin … the fartage was much worse than when i started raw PS. But today, it’s mostly gone. I do eat lots of potatoes, rice, RS-rich foods like green bananas, but I tend to prefer the cooked and cooled one. However, an extra bit of inulin, rosehip powder and a sprinkle of psyllium in say yogurt is much tastier than raw PS, so I kept inulin as a useful supplement. I also buy chocolate sweentened with erythritol / stevia stuff, and containing inulin and FOS. That’s what I give my kids. They are still too young to really appreciate onions, leeks, etc. I don’t forcefeed them veggies if they don’t really like them but I sneak inulin and FOS nonetheless in their diet. It makes them mega-regular :)

  4. pzo on September 30, 2014 at 16:07

    I’ve been soaking pintos and black beans typically 30-36 hours before cooking for several years. I assure you I fart quite well, thank you!

    As to bubbles while soaking, I’ve come to the conclusion that while no doubt having something to do with yeasts, it isn’t classic fermentation. First, it starts within an hour or so. Second, starches can’t ferment, it has to be a sugar. (Anyone who knows otherwise, please jump in.) And beans are big lumps, not a juice like grape.

    Add another piece to the puzzle: Some “off brand” beans bought at a discount grocery, got to bubbling fast and furiously quicker than beans from the “name brand’s, house brand” beans! And that held true for both varieties.

    I do know that having dropped potato starch a month ago and changing a lot of RS to beans hasn’t hurt my FBG. Still running 85-100.

  5. Duck Dodgers on September 30, 2014 at 16:19

    Well, now I’m annoyed that I’ve been wasting all this time soaking…

    From: Beans: More Than 200 Delicious, Wholesome Recipes from Around the World By Aliza Green

    The purpose of soaking is to rehydrate dried legumes, ensure even cooking, and shorten the cooking time. Another benefit of soaking beans is to remove indigestible oligosaccharides that can cause gas. These oligosaccharides are soluble in water…

    …Interestingly, not every authority recommends soaking beans. I remember working with Chef Bradley Ogden for a special event. He asked me not to soak the black beans because their color would lighten from jet black to a deep purple. While I have to agree that unsoaked black beans are definitely darker and more dramatic in color, I am willing to forgo a bit of color to ease the digestion of my meal. Cooks in Mexico don’t generally soak their beans. They depend on the nutritious cooking liquid as a kind of soupy sauce. Mediterranean cooks do soak, a habit learned from cooking Old World legumes like checkpeas and favas.

    Diana Kennedy, a culinary authority I’ve admired greatly ever since her seminal book, The Cuisines of Mexico, also has strong opinions about preparing beans. She recommends not soaking beans to avoid the unpleasant odor the skins can produce. However, if the beans are soaked, she recommends not throwing out the soaking water because it contains all the minerals and flavor.

    In How to Read a French Fry, Russ Parsons notes: “At the most, presoaking beans shortens their cooking time and provides for a more even softening of the starch granules (since beans are dried ingredients, part of the cooking process is [to] simply add the water that was lost in drying)…soaking also removes a marginal amount of nutrients and, in the case of beans, a noticeable amount of flavor. In fact, in cultures that best love beans, they are rarely soaked.”

    I’ve confirmed this by referencing in 19th century literature. It seems that Mexicans only soaked maize/corn in lime water, but not beans. Here’s a video of the old-world painstaking process for making corn tortillas.

  6. Tatertot on September 30, 2014 at 17:26

    That stuff they sell, Bean-o, that’s the key.
    It has an enzyme that digests raffinose, so by removing the raffinose, most people won’t fart with beans.

    Soaking removes most of the raffinose through bacterial degradation.

    Here’s another reason TO soak beans. The soaking encourages the growth of L.plantarum. This microbe is said to be very beneficial in our colon. It drills into the bean, getting into every pore and all throughout the soaking beans, seeking out stuff to eat (like raffinose).

    Now, when we cook the beans, the poor little L. plantarum are heat-killed. But guess what? They don’t all die. When exposed to heat, L.plantarum turn into what is known as an L-Form, one of the planets toughest extremophiles. In this phase, these bacteria can survive anything, even being carried by forest fire smoke plumes to (possibly) outerspace, but certainly to the upper atmosphere where the can travel the high winds and spread everywhere on earth, surviving for centuries in Antarctic ice or anywhere they land, just waiting for the right conditions to convert back into living L. plantarum.

    I guess what I’m saying…when you eat beans that have been soaked, you are getting some damn fine probiotics, too.

    • Richard Nikoley on September 30, 2014 at 17:46

      So would they be there originally in L-form and if so, survive initial cooking?

      But anyway, one way to do it would be to soak half your batch starting a day ahead, and have both soaked and unsoaked.

    • tatertot on September 30, 2014 at 19:03


    • Richard Nikoley on September 30, 2014 at 19:15

      Also, I’m going to just use the soaking water and see how that goes. There’s really a distinct difference between the soaked and u soaked beans in terms of flavor.

      Also, oddly enough, when Bea and her mom do beans, un soaked, they are softer than my soaked ones even if I cook the shit out of them, and they make really smooth refried whereas mine are chunky.

    • Woodwose on October 1, 2014 at 10:23

      If the plantarum can survive heath, could we use this to optimize fermentation ?
      Maybe something like this:
      1.) Let the beans soak for awhile.
      2.) Expose them to cooking water for some seconds = The “bad guys” die, the “good guys” survive inside the beans
      3.) Put them in a sterile container for a week or two and let the surviving plantarum multiply
      4.) Eat and peraps use the leftovers as a Culture forthe next batch.

    • tatertot on October 1, 2014 at 10:32

      I don’t know if this facet of bacterial evolution is all that ‘exploitable’ in this case. There are new heat-killed lactobacillus probiotics (for humans).

      When soaking beans, or fermenting anything, you are relying on the good bacteria, in this case L. plantarum, to give off lactic acid which will kill or chase away any potential pathogens, it’s just a basic tenet of fermentation.

      What you describe about using the ‘used’ soaking water is actually described in the literature as ‘back-slopping’ and apparently used quite successfully to inoculate the next batch of soaking beans. I do it myself when I do back-to-back batches.

      It’s described here, and this is actually a very interesting paper to read regarding the changes that beans undergo when soaked:

  7. tatertot on September 30, 2014 at 19:08

    OK, at least you came up with a solution before you knew the answer, lol.

    I have no idea. These L-forms are just now being studied. Funny, they’ve been in probiotics for years (FOR COWS!!!), but just now making it into human probiotics.

    “• L-form Lactobacillus, probiotic Enzymes that aid in feed digestion.”

    It’s pretty amazing, really. I think what you would find on beans in the store or from the field is live, regular Lactobacillus, but when they are heated up, they turn into L-forms and go dormant. They are also called Cell-Wall Deficient (CWD) microbes, in case you wanted to Google it.

    • Gemma on October 1, 2014 at 00:25


      Wow, cell-wall-deficient microbes, what a fascinating topic.

      They are just everywhere, the bugs (both bacteria and yeasts) can escape into this back-up form when exposed to a harsh treatment, simply by shedding their cell wall and behaving a bit like amoebae… And believe it or not, this makes some of them even more creative and resistant.

      Here a paper: Cell wall deficient forms of mycobacteria: a review

    • Gemma on October 1, 2014 at 00:28

      And here another fascinating paper, in case you like to read even more:

      L-form bacteria, cell walls and the origins of life

      “The peptidoglycan wall is a defining feature of bacterial cells and was probably already present in their last common ancestor. L-forms are bacterial variants that lack a cell wall and divide by a variety of processes involving membrane blebbing, tubulation, vesiculation and fission. Their unusual mode of proliferation provides a model for primitive cells and is reminiscent of recently developed in vitro vesicle reproduction processes. Invention of the cell wall may have underpinned the explosion of bacterial life on the Earth. Later innovations in cell envelope structure, particularly the emergence of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, possibly in an early endospore former, seem to have spurned further major evolutionary radiations. Comparative studies of bacterial cell envelope structure may help to resolve the early key steps in evolutionary development of the bacterial domain of life.

      Keywords: L-forms, Bacillus subtilis, lipid vesicles, phylogenetics, origin of life”

  8. Gemma on October 1, 2014 at 00:33

    So now we know a bit more about the origins of life, but what am I to do with my beans, lentils, peas and chickpeas?

    Soak or not, rinse or not?

    I have decided to be creative and experiment!

  9. SteveRN on October 1, 2014 at 04:42

    So do your wife and mother in law not even do the quick soak method? Just throw them in the pot and let it go?

  10. Alesia on October 1, 2014 at 06:10

    I have seen a recipe for lacto-fermented french fries. I originally thought, I’m not sure what the point is if the probiotics will be killed during the cooking process. Now I’m thinking the lactobacilli might turn into L-form… hmm.

  11. John on October 1, 2014 at 07:51

    For me, a big reason not to soak would be to increase my bean consumption. I almost never cook them because I almost never think about soaking them the day before.

    Interesting to hear about the softness aspect too. I cook the hell out of my pintos and have spent some time Googling “beans won’t get soft.” I hadn’t heard “don’t soak them.”

    • Richard Nikoley on October 1, 2014 at 07:55

      It’s counterintuitive, but I take my soaked & cooked beans and try to make a nice, smooth refried, and they just don’t do it well. I take my wife’s or my MIL’s, and bam, works every time. Also, I have to salt the hell out of mine to bring out flavor whereas, theirs don’t need much.

    • John on October 1, 2014 at 08:38

      I’ll try today. “Magic Pot” has been sitting in the box on my floor for weeks because I never think about soaking beans (meanwhile the Magic Pot I got my mom at the same time for her birthday has already cooked some awesome pasta sauce twice for family dinners. All her friends were curious about what was in the box labeled “Magic Pot” when she was opening it on her birthday).

      A long time ago I watched an episode of Good Eats where Alton Brown discussed soaking being unnecessary but I forget the reasoning now.

    • Mike on October 1, 2014 at 09:47

      I like to soak then cook the beans, then blend them in my vitamix together with steamed cassava and sweet potato. I then cool it in the fridge and eat it cold with yogurt mixed in. Any thoughts to the RS content after blended? Are there any changes?

  12. Duck Dodgers on October 1, 2014 at 12:18

    Oooh.. I have an idea. Try taking an L. Plantarum probiotic pill right before eating unsoaked beans.

    Best of both worlds :)

  13. Duck Dodgers on October 1, 2014 at 12:25

    As I’m reading about traditional (Mexican) preparation of beans, I’m seeing that cooking them in clay pots are still considered to be the gold standard:

    “For thousands of years, clay pots have been the preferred choice for cooking beans in countries all over the world. Don’t mess with tradition. Make you beans happy in a clay pot.”

    From what I understand, the clay pots impart a certain flavor than other vessels cannot impart. Some of them appear to be unglazed. I wonder if there are L-forms living in them?

    • Alesia on October 1, 2014 at 17:51

      In my art school days, instructors told us never make unglazed ceramics for food. Ceramics made with cracked glazes were also not considered food safe, because of the potential to harbour bacteria. Sounds like you’re on to something.

  14. Duck Dodgers on October 1, 2014 at 13:37

    Another thing I’m considering is getting a pressure cooker. By reducing cooking times and water, it has been shown to preserve nutrients better. At first I was against it, because I assumed it was just some kind of modern abomination that could not possibly reproduce traditional cooking. But then I read that the maximum PSI of a pressure cooker is just 15 PSI, which isn’t exactly space age technology.

    Science in Cooking: FAQ

    Can you increase the temperature of boiling water?

    Yes, by using a pressure cooker or by cooking at the Dead Sea. At sea level, water boils at 212 degrees F. At the lowest point on Earth, the Dead Sea, the boiling temperature could be increased to 221 F. A pressure cooker decreases cooking time by applying pressure. The phase diagram for water shows that at higher pressure, the boiling point of water increases and thus allow more heat transfer per unit time. The pressure in a pressure cooker is about one atmosphere (15 psi) greater than sea level atmospheric pressure. At this pressure water boils at 252 F.

    So, we are really just talking about a bit more heat and less overall time.

    And, in fact, studies show that a home pressure cooker is not strong enough to sterilize food—particularly since cooking time is reduced considerably and the water temperature is only a bit higher. Certainly not hot enough for an extremophile. Interestingly, a pressure cooker will supposedly do a better job of reducing phytic acid than soaking and cooking alone will. Although, at this point, I’m willing to believe that phytic acid is no big deal, and perhaps even beneficial, when eating a varied diet with sufficient minerals. (References in the linked articles).

    • Richard Nikoley on October 1, 2014 at 13:56


      The Ideal Gas Law will simply not stop raising its ugly head.

    • Wilbur on October 2, 2014 at 19:15

      Duck –

      I’m not one prone to use modern abominations, but the pressure cooker is an interesting tool. More to it than a bit more heat.

      You can compare cooking times for yourself and decide whether it is worth it. But there are other differences.

      For some, the container is “closed”, meaning no (really, little) vapor escapes. You don’t smell the food cooking nearly as much. That’s a good thing, from a taste perspective. What you smell is lost taste. OTOH, nothing smells better than cooking beans or rice!

      I am also a fan of cooking tougher cuts of meat, like shoulders, in a pressure cooker. The added heat seems to do something different to the collagen, melting it better and making the meat more moist. In less time. And for something like chili, keeping the volatile compounds in the pot rather than in the air makes for a big difference.

      Finally, no stir risottos are easy in a pressure cooker. As I understand, rapidly releasing the pressure at the end of cooking breaks apart grains (not just rice, but barley, farro, and others) and releases their starches. I’ll just say it works!

    • Gemma on October 3, 2014 at 00:32


      “rapidly releasing the pressure at the end of cooking”

      Do you use rapid cooling (by pouring cold water onto the pressure cooker or so) to induce this rapid release? Or what do you mean?

      I sometimes do that, it feels very alchemistic, and you never know what you get…

  15. Cathy on October 1, 2014 at 16:03

    I would be loathe to go against my mother in law! Try it, its an experiment that you know will turn out great! I can’t wait to give it a whirl as I am someone who thinks about having some beans but hasn’t soaked them. One doesn’t need to soak lentils.

  16. Martin on October 1, 2014 at 21:44
    • Richard Nikoley on October 1, 2014 at 22:24

      It really doesn’t matter one way or the other. It’s simply a WAG to emphasize importance, which is true.

  17. LeonRover on October 2, 2014 at 03:29

    Hey Rich

    A nice review of how an actual couple use different cooking techniques wrt dried beans.

    Do you have an opinion (or information) if pre-soaking fresh beans has any outcome on extraction of oligosaccharrides ?

    It is now the broad bean season here, so there is an abundance of this seasonal legume.

    Sláinte as Léon

    • Richard Nikoley on October 2, 2014 at 08:02

      Nope, nothing specific and it hadn’t ocurred to me that you could get them fresh rather than dried.

      Hell, for sure I’d just cook those. My only thought would be the difference is solubility, since fresh would have all its moisture and to cook dried is to reconstitute or rehydrate.

      Probably eat some raw, too, see how that goes. When I was a kid we grew massive amounts of peas and they are crazy good and sweet right from the pod.

    • Wilbur on October 2, 2014 at 19:28

      Richard –

      IMO, fresh beans are definitely worth seeking out. We get cranberry beans, limas, and chickpeas fresh around here. I’ve played around with some homegrown beans too.

      My wife and I proclaimed sauteed fresh chickpeas to be one of the very best things we have ever eaten. Fresh limas are nothing like their frozen versions. For some reason, cranberry beans highly reflect the quality of the cooking liquid, so only the best there.

      The main pain is the shucking. But worth it.

  18. Wilbur on October 2, 2014 at 19:42

    I’ve been playing around with roasting beans. The main idea is to soak them until fully rehydrated (important), get them dry, coat with ghee md spices, and then roast in the oven at about 400F or so until crispy. About 30-60 minutes. This is vague because I’m still working on it and it varies by bean.

    The result is a nice crispy bean that makes a nice snack. Plus, pretty beans stay pretty, keeping their markings. It looks like the dried bean, but is edible.

    I have no idea what this does to the fiber values. Does anyone know?

    • Gemma on October 3, 2014 at 00:25


      I have been hoping so much that you appear and post your magic words: “I’ve been playing around with ..”


      What is the fiber value of such a bean?
      Please be absolutely precise! No room for any errors! We have very high expectations!


    • Tatertot on October 3, 2014 at 08:17

      Wilbur – I’ve never heard of cooking beans in that method. Is this your own invention? I know many credible sources say that beans need to be boiled hard for a minimum of 10 minutes to reduce certain toxins and to never eat raw, dried beans. Surely baking like this would also deactivate. This actually sounds like a more ‘ancestral’ way of cooking beans.

      Gemma – 10g/100g w/w esculent and dwb.

    • Gemma on October 3, 2014 at 09:49


      Spot on.

    • Wilbur on October 3, 2014 at 13:07

      It was my own invention until I googled it. Others had thought of it too, but I did not find any specific recipes. I think maybe because it varies greatly depending on the type, quality, and age of the bean. It’s not as hands off as I’d like as the beans can burn.

      I was interested in making a raw garlic chutney from an Indian recipe which called for roasted Chana dal. I didn’t have any, so I looked up roasted chickpeas as a substitute. The very first recipe I encountered simply roasted the dried bean after it had been rehydrated. I’ve got a bunch, so that’s what I did. They were so good that I never made my garlic chutney. A perfect snack.

      After, I came to the realization that there was nothing special about the chickpea in the method. I’ve got some rattlesnake beans… The dark ones turn out to be bitter (I like bitter), probably because the skin provides a lot of the flavor. I have some white ones that will look just like tic-tacs.

      My next great idea (haven’t googled it to see if I invented it) is grind the beans in a food processor to make a bread crumb substitute. I make the most awesome mac and cheese that uses cauliflower AS its sauce (100% cauliflower-the cheese flavor is absorbed into the pasta by making cheese water). Wouldn’t it be awesome if I could sprinkle beans over the top for a crunchy texture?!

  19. wallycat on November 11, 2015 at 08:14

    Wilbur, I’m new to this site but lurking a while on the resistant starch issue.
    A few comments…have you tried crushed up pork rinds for the crumb replacement for your mac/cheese? supposed to be amazing.
    Also, you asked something about cooking and fiber value….I don’t know if this site answers those questions specifically : Also quite interesting that soaking beans in baking soda/water amplifies the resistant starch even more…but probably very mushy beans. Great for old, dried out beans though.

  20. Mark on January 19, 2017 at 01:01

    Hello Richard, I used to enjoy hummus a lot, but I stopped eating it when I embarked on my low carb paleo diet. Now, however, after reading your blog, I realise a lot of what I did was misguided (including omitting beans, peas and legumes) and i just want to make sure I have got this right, in that it is now fine to make foods like hummus without prior soaking of the chickpeas first? I can cook them straight off? An obvious follow up to that would be, if so, could I even skip the cooking of fresh chickpeas and simply used canned? Or would you advise using fresh whenever possible?
    Great and fascinating blog,

    • Richard Nikoley on January 20, 2017 at 12:20

      I don’t soak any legumes, anymore. I’m sure preparing yourself is better, but canned are probably fine if you go for the quality brands.

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